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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

topics was merely due to a search for novelty, that it was "for the most 

part but an amusement and had little serious or personal in it." Those 

readers of Barnfield, however, who are acquainted with homosexual 

literature will scarcely fail to recognize a personal preoccupation in his 

poems. This is also the opinion of Moll in his _Beruehmte Homosexuelle_. 

 

[86] See appendix to my edition of Marlowe in the _Mermaid Series_, first 

edition. For a study of Marlowe's "Gaveston," regarded as "the 

hermaphrodite in soul," see J.A. Nicklin, _Free Review_, December, 1895. 

 

[87] As Raffalovich acutely points out, the twentieth sonnet, with its 

reference to the "one thing to my purpose nothing," is alone enough to 

show that Shakespeare was not a genuine invert, as then he would have 

found the virility of the loved object beautiful. His sonnets may fairly 

be compared to the _In Memoriam_ of Tennyson, whom it is impossible to 

describe as inverted, though in his youth he cherished an ardent 

friendship for another youth, such as was also felt in youth by Montaigne. 

 

[88] A scene in Vanbrugh's _Relapse_, and the chapter (ch. li) in 

Smollett's _Roderick Random_ describing Lord Strutwell, may also be 

mentioned as evidencing familiarity with inversion. "In our country," said 

Lord Strutwell to Rawdon, putting forward arguments familiar to modern 

champions of homosexuality, "it gains ground apace, and in all probability 

will become in a short time a more fashionable vice than simple 

fornication." 

 

[89] These observations on eighteenth century homosexuality in London are 

chiefly based on the volumes of _Select Trials_ at the Old Bailey, 

published in 1734. 

 

[90] Numa Praetorius (_Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. iv, p. 

885), who has studied Byron from this point of view, considers that, 

though his biography has not yet been fully written on the sexual side, he 

was probably of bisexual temperament; Raffalovich (_Uranisme et 

Unisexualite_, p. 309) is of the same opinion. 

 

[91] A youthful attraction of this kind in a poet is well illustrated by 

Dolben, who died at the age of nineteen. In addition to a passion for 

Greek poetry he cherished a romantic friendship of extraordinary ardor, 

revealed in his poems, for a slightly older schoolfellow, who was never 

even aware of the idolatry he aroused. Dolben's life has been written, and 

his poems edited, by his friend the eminent poet, Robert Bridges (_The 

Poems of D.M. Dolben_, edited with a Memoir by R. Bridges, 1911). 

 

[92] A well-informed narrative of the Oscar Wilde trial is given by 

Raffalovich in his _Uranisme et Unisexualite_, pp. 241-281; the full 

report of the trial has been published by Mason. The best life of Wilde is 

probably that of Arthur Ransome. Andre Gide's little volume of 

reminiscences, _Oscar Wilde_ (also translated into English), is well worth 

reading. Wilde has been discussed in relation to homosexuality by Numa 

Praetorius (_Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. iii, 1901). An 

instructive document, an unpublished portion of _De Profundis_, in which 

Wilde sought to lay the blame for his misfortune on a friend,--his 

"ancient affection" for whom has, he declares, been turned to "loathing, 

bitterness, and contempt,"--was published in the _Times_, 18th April, 

1913; it clearly reveals an element of weakness of character. 

 

[93] T. Wright, _Life of Edward Fitzgerald_, vol. i, p. 158. 

 

[94] Most of these were carelessly lost or destroyed by Posh. A few have 

been published by James Blyth, _Edward Fitzgerald and_ '_Posh_,' 1908. 

 

[95] It is as such that Whitman should be approached, and I would desire 

to protest against the tendency, now marked in many quarters, to treat him 

merely as an invert, and to vilify him or glorify him accordingly. However 

important inversion may be as a psychological key to Whitman's 

personality, it plays but a small part in Whitman's work, and for many who 

care for that work a negligible part. (I may be allowed to refer to my own 

essay on Whitman, in _The New Spirit_, written nearly thirty years ago.) 

 

[96] I may add that Symonds (in his book on Whitman) accepted this letter 

as a candid and final statement showing that Whitman was absolutely 

hostile to sexual inversion, that he had not even taken its phenomena into 


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