Main  Contacts  
Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

CHAPTER II. 

 

THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION. 

 

Westphal--Hoessli--Casper--Ulrichs--Krafft-Ebing--Moll--Fere--Kiernan-- 

Lydston--Raffalovich--Edward Carpenter--Hirschfeld. 

 

 

Westphal, an eminent professor of psychiatry at Berlin, may be said to be 

the first to put the study of sexual inversion on an assured scientific 

basis. In 1870 he published, in the _Archiv fuer Psychiatrie_, of which he 

was for many years editor, the detailed history of a young woman who, from 

her earliest years, differed from other girls: she liked to dress as a 

boy, only cared for boys' games, and as she grew up was sexually attracted 

only to women, with whom she formed a series of tender relationships, in 

which the friends obtained sexual gratification by mutual caresses; while 

she blushed and was shy in the presence of women, more especially the girl 

with whom she chanced to be in love, she was always absolutely indifferent 

in the presence of men. Westphal--a pupil, it may be noted, of Griesinger, 

who had already called attention to the high character sometimes shown by 

subjects of this perversion--combined keen scientific insight with a rare 

degree of personal sympathy for those who came under his care, and it was 

this combination of qualities which enabled him to grasp the true nature 

of a case such as this, which by most medical men at that time would have 

been hastily dismissed as a vulgar instance of vice or insanity. Westphal 

perceived that this abnormality was congenital, not acquired, so that it 

could not be termed vice; and, while he insisted on the presence of 

neurotic elements, his observations showed the absence of anything that 

could legitimately be termed insanity. He gave to this condition the name 

of "contrary sexual feeling" (_Kontraere Sexualempfindung_), by which it 

was long usually known in Germany. The way was thus made clear for the 

rapid progress of our knowledge of this abnormality. New cases were 

published in quick succession, at first exclusively in Germany, and more 

especially in Westphal's _Archiv_, but soon in other countries also, 

chiefly Italy and France.[113] 

 

While Westphal was the first to place the study of sexual inversion on a 

progressive footing, many persons had previously obtained glimpses into 

the subject. Thus, in 1791, two cases were published[114] of men who 

showed a typical emotional attraction to their own sex, though it was not 

quite clearly made out that the inversion was congenital. In 1836, again, 

a Swiss writer, Heinrich Hoessli, published a rather diffuse but remarkable 

work, entitled _Eros_, which contained much material of a literary 

character bearing on this matter. He seems to have been moved to write 

this book by a trial which had excited considerable attention at that 

time. A man of good position had suddenly murdered a youth, and was 

executed for the crime, which, according to Hoessli, was due to homosexual 

love and jealousy. Hoessli was not a trained scholar; he was in business at 

Glarus as a skillful milliner, the most successful in the town. His own 

temperament is supposed to have been bisexual. His book was prohibited by 

the local authorities and at a later period the entire remaining stock was 

destroyed in a fire, so that its circulation was very small. It is now, 

however, regarded by some as the first serious attempt to deal with the 

problem of homosexuality since Plato's _Banquet_.[115] 

 

Some years later, in 1852, Casper, the chief medico-legal authority of his 

time in Germany,--for it is in Germany that the foundations of the study 

of sexual inversion have been laid,--pointed out in Casper's 

_Vierteljahrsschrift_ that pederasty, in a broad sense of the word, was 

sometimes a kind of "moral hermaphroditism," due to a congenital psychic 

condition, and also that it by no means necessarily involved sodomy 

(_immissio penis in anum_). Casper brought forward a considerable amount 

of valuable evidence concerning these cardinal points, which he was the 

first to note,[116] but he failed to realize the full significance of his 

observations, and they had no immediate influence, though Tardieu, in 

1858, admitted a congenital element in some pederasts. 

 

The man, however, who more than anyone else brought to light the phenomena 

of sexual inversion had not been concerned either with the medical or the 


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