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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

criminal aspects of the matter. Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (born in 1825 near 

Aurich), who for many years expounded and defended homosexual love, and 

whose views are said to have had some influence in drawing Westphal's 

attention to the matter, was a Hanoverian legal official (_Amtsassessor_), 

himself sexually inverted. From 1864 onward, at first under the name of 

"Numa Numantius" and subsequently under his own name, Ulrichs published, 

in various parts of Germany, a long series of works dealing with this 

question, and made various attempts to obtain a revision of the legal 

position of the sexual invert in Germany. 

 

Although not a writer whose psychological views can carry much scientific 

weight, Ulrichs appears to have been a man of most brilliant ability, and 

his knowledge is said to have been of almost universal extent; he was not 

only well versed in his own special subjects of jurisprudence and 

theology, but in many branches of natural science, as well as in 

archeology; he was also regarded by many as the best Latinist of his time. 

In 1880 he left Germany and settled in Naples, and afterward at Aquila in 

the Abruzzi, whence he issued a Latin periodical. He died in 1895.[117] 

John Addington Symonds, who went to Aquila in 1891, wrote: "Ulrichs is 

_chrysostomos_ to the last degree, sweet, noble, a true gentleman and man 

of genius. He must have been at one time a man of singular personal 

distinction, so finely cut are his features, and so grand the lines of his 

skull."[118] 

 

For many years Ulrichs was alone in his efforts to gain scientific 

recognition for congenital homosexuality. He devised (with allusion to 

Uranos in Plato's _Symposium_) the word uranian or urning, ever since 

frequently used for the homosexual lover, while he called the normal 

heterosexual lover a dioning (from Dione). He regarded uranism, or 

homosexual love, as a congenital abnormality by which a female soul had 

become united with a male body--_anima muliebris in corpore virili 

inclusa_--and his theoretical speculations have formed the starting point 

for many similar speculations. His writings are remarkable in various 

respects, although, on account of the polemical warmth with which, as one 

pleading _pro domo_, he argued his cause, they had no marked influence on 

scientific thought.[119] 

 

This privilege was reserved for Westphal. After he had shown the way and 

thrown open his journal for their publication, new cases appeared in rapid 

succession. In Italy, also, Ritti, Tamassia, Lombroso, and others began to 

study these phenomena. In 1882 Charcot and Magnan published in the 

_Archives de Neurologie_ the first important study which appeared in 

France concerning sexual inversion and allied sexual perversions. They 

regarded sexual inversion as an episode (_syndrome_) in a more fundamental 

process of hereditary degeneration, and compared it with such morbid 

obsessions as dipsomania and kleptomania. From a somewhat more 

medico-legal standpoint, the study of sexual inversion in France was 

furthered by Brouardel, and still more by Lacassagne, whose stimulating 

influence at Lyons has produced fruitful results in the work of many 

pupils.[120] 

 

Of much more importance in the history of the theory of sexual inversion 

was the work of Richard von Krafft-Ebing (born at Mannheim in 1840 and 

died at Graz in 1902), for many years professor of psychiatry at Vienna 

University and one of the most distinguished alienists of his time. While 

active in all departments of psychiatry and author of a famous textbook, 

from 1877 onward he took special interest in the pathology of the sexual 

impulse. His _Psychopathia Sexualis_ contained over two hundred histories, 

not only of sexual inversion but of all other forms of sexual perversion. 

For many years it was the only book on the subject and it long remained 

the chief storehouse of facts. It passed through many editions and was 

translated into many languages (there are two translations in English), 

enjoying an immense and not altogether enviable vogue. 

 

Krafft-Ebing's methods were open to some objection. His mind was not of a 

severely critical order. He poured out the new and ever-enlarged editions 


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