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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

introduced new subdivisions from time to time into his classification of 

sexual perversions, and, although this rather fine-spun classification has 

doubtless contributed to give precision to the subject and to advance its 

scientific study, it was at no time generally accepted. Krafft-Ebing's 

great service lay in the clinical enthusiasm with which he approached the 

study of sexual perversions. With the firm conviction that he was 

conquering a great neglected field of morbid psychology which rightly 

belongs to the physician, he accumulated without any false shame a vast 

mass of detailed histories, and his reputation induced sexually abnormal 

individuals in all directions to send him their autobiographies, in the 

desire to benefit their fellow-sufferers. 

 

It is as a clinician, rather than as a psychologist, that we must regard 

Krafft-Ebing. At the outset he considered inversion to be a functional 

sign of degeneration, a partial manifestation of a neuropathic and 

psychopathic state which is in most cases hereditary. This perverse 

sexuality appears spontaneously with the developing sexual life, without 

external causes, as the individual manifestation of an abnormal 

modification of the _vita sexualis_, and must then be regarded as 

congenital; or it develops as a result of special injurious influences 

working on a sexuality which had at first been normal, and must then be 

regarded as acquired. Careful investigation of these so-called acquired 

cases, however, Krafft-Ebing in the end finally believed, would indicate 

that the predisposition consists in a latent homosexuality, or at least 

bisexuality, which requires for its manifestation the operation of 

accidental causes. In the last edition of his work Krafft-Ebing was 

inclined to regard inversion as being not so much a degeneration as a 

variation, a simple anomaly, and acknowledged that his opinion thus 

approximated to that which had long been held by inverts themselves.[121] 

 

At the time of his death, Krafft-Ebing, who had begun by accepting the 

view, at that time prevalent among alienists, that homosexuality is a sign 

of degeneration, thus fully adopted and set the seal of his authority on 

the view, already expressed alike by some scientific investigators as well 

as by inverts themselves, that sexual inversion is to be regarded simply 

as an anomaly, whatever difference of opinion there might be as to the 

value of the anomaly. The way was even opened for such a view as that of 

Freud and most of the psychoanalysts today who regard a strain of 

homosexuality as normal and almost constant, with a profound significance 

for the psychonervous life. In 1891 Dr. Albert Moll, of Berlin, published 

his work, _Die Kontraere Sexualempfindung_, which subsequently appeared in 

much enlarged and revised editions. It speedily superseded all previous 

books as a complete statement and judicious discussion of sexual 

inversion. Moll was not content merely to present fresh clinical material. 

He attacked the problem which had now become of primary importance: the 

nature and causes of sexual inversion. He discussed the phenomena as a 

psychologist even more than as a physician, bearing in mind the broader 

aspects of the problem, keenly critical of accepted opinions, but 

judiciously cautious in the statement of conclusions. He cleared away 

various ancient prejudices and superstitions which even Krafft-Ebing 

sometimes incautiously repeated. He accepted the generally received 

doctrine that the sexually inverted usually belong to families in which 

various nervous and mental disorders prevail, but he pointed out at the 

same time that it is not in all cases possible to prove that we are 

concerned with individuals possessing a hereditary neurotic taint. He also 

rejected any minute classification of sexual inverts, only recognizing 

psycho-sexual hermaphroditism and homosexuality. At the same time he cast 

doubt on the existence of acquired homosexuality, in a strict sense, 

except in occasional cases, and he pointed out that even when a normal 

heterosexual impulse appears at puberty, and a homosexual impulse later, 

it may still be the former that was acquired and the latter that was 


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