|• Main||• Contacts|
For such a task Hirschfeld had been prepared by many years of strenuous
activity as a physician, an investigator, a medico-legal expert before the
courts, and his position as president of the _Wissenschaftlich-humanitaeren
Komitee_ which is concerned with the defense of the interests of the
homosexual in Germany. In Hirschfeld's book the pathological conception
of inversion has entirely disappeared; homosexuality is regarded as
primarily a biological phenomenon of universal extension, and secondarily
as a social phenomenon of serious importance. There is no attempt to
invent new theories; the main value of Hirschfeld's work lies, indeed, in
the constant endeavor to keep close to definite facts. It is this quality
which renders the book an indispensable source for all who seek
enlightened and precise information on this question.
Even the existence of such a treatise as this of Hirschfeld's is enough to
show how rapidly the study of this subject has grown. A few years ago--for
instance, when Dr. Paul Moreau wrote his _Aberrations du Sens
Genesique_--sexual inversion was scarcely even a name. It was a loathsome
and nameless vice, only to be touched with a pair of tongs, rapidly and
with precautions. As it now presents itself, it is a psychological and
medico-legal problem so full of interest that we need not fear to face it,
and so full of grave social actuality that we are bound to face it.
 In England aberration of the sexual instinct, or the tendency of men
to feminine occupations and of women to masculine occupations, had been
referred to in the _Medical Times and Gazette_, February 9, 1867; Sir G.
Savage first described a case of "Sexual Perversion" in the _Journal of
Mental Science_, vol. xxx, October, 1884.
 Moritz, _Magazin fuer Erfahrungsseelenkunde_, Berlin, Bd. viii.
 A full and interesting account of Hoessli and his book is given by
Karsch in the _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. v, 1903, pp.
 "Eugen Duehren" (Iwan Bloch) remarks, however (_Neue Forschungen ueber
den Marquis de Sade und seine Zeit_, p. 436), that de Sade in his _Aline
et Valcour_ seems to recognize that inversion is sometimes inborn, or at
least natural, and apt to develop at a very early age, in spite of all
provocations to the normal attitude. "And if this inclination were not
natural," he makes Sarmiento say, "would the impression of it be received
in childhood?... Let us study better this indulgent Nature before daring
to fix her limits." Still earlier, in 1676 (as Schouten has pointed out,
_Sexual-Probleme_, January, 1910, p. 66), an Italian priest called
Carretto recognized that homosexual tendencies are innate.
 For some account of Ulrichs see _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle
Zwischenstufen_, Bd. i, 1899, p. 36.
 Horatio Brown, _John Addington Symonds, a Biography_, vol. ii, p.
 Ulrichs scarcely went so far as to assert that both homosexual and
heterosexual love are equally normal and healthy; this has, however, been
argued more recently.
 Special mention may be made of _L'Inversion Sexuelle_, a copious and
comprehensive, though sometimes uncritical book by Dr. J. Chevalier,
published in 1893, and the _Perversion et Perversite Sexuelles_ of Dr.
Saint-Paul, writing under the pseudonym of "Dr. Laupts," published in 1896
and republished in an enlarged form, under the title of _L'Homosexualite
et les Types Homosexuels_, in 1910.
 Krafft-Ebing set forth his latest views in a paper read before the
International Medical Congress, at Paris, in 1900 (_Comptes-rendus_,
"Section de Psychiatrie," pp. 421, 462; also in contributions to the
_Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. iii, 1901).
 Kiernan, _Detroit Lancet_, 1884, _Alienist and Neurologist_, April,
1891; Lydston, _Philadelphia Medical and Surgical Reporter_, September 7,
1889, and _Addresses and Essays_, 1892.
 A summary of the conclusion of this book, of which but few copies
were printed, will be found in Hirschfeld's _Vierteljahrsberichte_,
October, 1911, pp. 78-91.
Page 5 from 5: Back 1 2 3 4