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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

For such a task Hirschfeld had been prepared by many years of strenuous 

activity as a physician, an investigator, a medico-legal expert before the 

courts, and his position as president of the _Wissenschaftlich-humanitaeren 

Komitee_ which is concerned with the defense of the interests of the 

homosexual in Germany. In Hirschfeld's book the pathological conception 

of inversion has entirely disappeared; homosexuality is regarded as 

primarily a biological phenomenon of universal extension, and secondarily 

as a social phenomenon of serious importance. There is no attempt to 

invent new theories; the main value of Hirschfeld's work lies, indeed, in 

the constant endeavor to keep close to definite facts. It is this quality 

which renders the book an indispensable source for all who seek 

enlightened and precise information on this question. 

 

Even the existence of such a treatise as this of Hirschfeld's is enough to 

show how rapidly the study of this subject has grown. A few years ago--for 

instance, when Dr. Paul Moreau wrote his _Aberrations du Sens 

Genesique_--sexual inversion was scarcely even a name. It was a loathsome 

and nameless vice, only to be touched with a pair of tongs, rapidly and 

with precautions. As it now presents itself, it is a psychological and 

medico-legal problem so full of interest that we need not fear to face it, 

and so full of grave social actuality that we are bound to face it. 

 

 

FOOTNOTES: 

 

[113] In England aberration of the sexual instinct, or the tendency of men 

to feminine occupations and of women to masculine occupations, had been 

referred to in the _Medical Times and Gazette_, February 9, 1867; Sir G. 

Savage first described a case of "Sexual Perversion" in the _Journal of 

Mental Science_, vol. xxx, October, 1884. 

 

[114] Moritz, _Magazin fuer Erfahrungsseelenkunde_, Berlin, Bd. viii. 

 

[115] A full and interesting account of Hoessli and his book is given by 

Karsch in the _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. v, 1903, pp. 

449-556. 

 

[116] "Eugen Duehren" (Iwan Bloch) remarks, however (_Neue Forschungen ueber 

den Marquis de Sade und seine Zeit_, p. 436), that de Sade in his _Aline 

et Valcour_ seems to recognize that inversion is sometimes inborn, or at 

least natural, and apt to develop at a very early age, in spite of all 

provocations to the normal attitude. "And if this inclination were not 

natural," he makes Sarmiento say, "would the impression of it be received 

in childhood?... Let us study better this indulgent Nature before daring 

to fix her limits." Still earlier, in 1676 (as Schouten has pointed out, 

_Sexual-Probleme_, January, 1910, p. 66), an Italian priest called 

Carretto recognized that homosexual tendencies are innate. 

 

[117] For some account of Ulrichs see _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle 

Zwischenstufen_, Bd. i, 1899, p. 36. 

 

[118] Horatio Brown, _John Addington Symonds, a Biography_, vol. ii, p. 

344. 

 

[119] Ulrichs scarcely went so far as to assert that both homosexual and 

heterosexual love are equally normal and healthy; this has, however, been 

argued more recently. 

 

[120] Special mention may be made of _L'Inversion Sexuelle_, a copious and 

comprehensive, though sometimes uncritical book by Dr. J. Chevalier, 

published in 1893, and the _Perversion et Perversite Sexuelles_ of Dr. 

Saint-Paul, writing under the pseudonym of "Dr. Laupts," published in 1896 

and republished in an enlarged form, under the title of _L'Homosexualite 

et les Types Homosexuels_, in 1910. 

 

[121] Krafft-Ebing set forth his latest views in a paper read before the 

International Medical Congress, at Paris, in 1900 (_Comptes-rendus_, 

"Section de Psychiatrie," pp. 421, 462; also in contributions to the 

_Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. iii, 1901). 

 

[122] Kiernan, _Detroit Lancet_, 1884, _Alienist and Neurologist_, April, 

1891; Lydston, _Philadelphia Medical and Surgical Reporter_, September 7, 

1889, and _Addresses and Essays_, 1892. 

 

[123] A summary of the conclusion of this book, of which but few copies 

were printed, will be found in Hirschfeld's _Vierteljahrsberichte_, 

October, 1911, pp. 78-91. 

 


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