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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

different to that of most men, it has provoked no kind of 

self-reproach or shame. On the contrary, the feeling has been 

rather one of elation in the consciousness of a capacity of 

affection which appears to be finer and more spiritual than that 

which commonly subsists between persons of different sexes. These 

men are all of intellectual capacity above the average; and one 

is actively engaged in the world, where he is both respected for 

his capacity and admired for his character. I mention this 

particularly, because it appears to be the habit, in books upon 

this subject, to regard the relation in question as pathological, 

and to select cases where those who are concerned in it are 

tormented with shame and remorse. In the cases to which I am 

referring nothing of the kind subsists. 

 

"In all these cases a physical sexual attraction is recognized as 

the basis of the relation, but as a matter of feeling, and partly 

also of theory, the ascetic ideal is adopted. 

 

"These are the only cases with which I am personally and 

intimately acquainted. But no one can have passed through a 

public-school and college life without constantly observing 

indications of the phenomenon in question. It is clear to me that 

in a large number of instances there is no fixed line between 

what is called distinctively 'friendship' and love; and it is 

probably the influence of custom and public opinion that in most 

cases finally specializes the physical passion in the direction 

of the opposite sex." 

 

The classification of the varieties of homosexuality is a matter of 

difficulty, and no classification is very fundamental. The early attempts 

of Krafft-Ebing and others at elaborate classification are no longer 

acceptable. Even the most elementary groupings become doubtful when we 

have definitely to fit our cases into them. The old distinction between 

congenital and acquired homosexuality has ceased to possess significance. 

When we have recognized that there is a tendency for homosexuality to 

arise in persons of usually normal tendency who are placed under 

conditions (as on board ship or in prison) where the exercise of normal 

sexuality is impossible, there is little further classification to be 

achieved along this line.[129] We have gone as far as is necessary by 

admitting a general undefined homosexuality,--a relationship of 

unspecified nature to persons of the same sex,--in addition to the more 

specific sexual inversion.[130] 

 

It may now be said to be recognized by all authorities, even by Freud who 

emphasizes a special psychological mechanism by which homosexuality may 

become established, that a congenital predisposition as well as an 

acquired tendency is necessary to constitute true inversion, apparent 

exceptions being too few to carry much weight. Krafft-Ebing, Naecke, Iwan 

Bloch, who at one time believed in the possibility of acquired inversion, 

all finally abandoned that view, and even Schrenck-Notzing, a vigorous 

champion of the doctrine of acquired inversion twenty years ago, admits 

the necessity of a favoring predisposition, an admission which renders the 

distinction between innate and acquired an unimportant, if not a merely 

verbal, distinction.[131] Supposing, indeed, that we are prepared to admit 

that true inversion may be purely acquired the decision in any particular 

case must be extremely difficult, and I have found very few cases which, 

even with imperfect knowledge, could fairly so be termed. 

 

Even the cases (to which Schopenhauer long since referred) in which 

inversion is only established late in life, are no longer regarded as 

constituting a difficulty in accepting the doctrine of the congenital 

nature of inversion; in such cases the inversion is merely retarded. The 

conception of retarded inversion,--that is to say a latent congenital 

inversion becoming manifest at a late period in life,--was first brought 

forward by Thoinot in 1898 in his _Attentats aux Moeurs_, in order to 

supersede the unsatisfactory conception, as he considered it to be, of 

acquired inversion. Thoinot regarded retarded inversion as relatively rare 


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