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and of no great importance but more accessible to therapeutic measures.
Three years later, Krafft-Ebing, toward the close of his life, adopted the
same conception; the cases to which he applied it were all, he considered,
of bisexual disposition and usually, also, marked by sexual hyperesthesia.
This way of looking at the matter was speedily championed by Naecke and may
now be said to be widely accepted.
Moll, earlier than Thoinot, had pointed out that it is difficult to
believe that homosexuality in late life can ever be produced without at
least some inborn weakness of the heterosexual impulse, and that we must
not deny the possibility of heredity even when homosexuality appears at
the age of 50 or 60.
Moll believes it is very doubtful whether heterosexual satiety
alone can ever suffice to produce homosexuality. Naecke was
careful to set aside the cases, to which much significance was
once attached, in which old men with failing sexual powers, or
younger men exhausted by heterosexual debauchery, are attracted
to boys. In such cases, which include the majority of those
appearing late, Naecke regarded the inversion as merely spurious,
the _faute de mieux_ of persons no longer apt for normal sexual
Such cases no doubt need more careful psychological study than
they usually receive. Fere once investigated a case of this kind
in which a healthy young man (though with slightly neurotic
heredity on one side) practised sexual intercourse excessively
between the ages of 20 and 23--often impelled more by _amour
propre_ (or what Adler would term the "masculine protest" of the
organically inferior) than sexual desire--and then suddenly
became impotent, at the same time losing all desire, but without
any other loss of health. Six months later potency slowly
returned, though never to the same extent, and he married. At the
age of 35 symptoms of locomotor ataxia began to appear, and some
years later he again became impotent, but without losing sexual
desire. Suddenly one day, on sitting in close contact with a
young man at a _table d'hote_, he experienced a violent erection;
he afterward found that the same thing occurred with other young
men, and, though he had no psychic desire for men, he was
constrained to seek such contact, and a repugnance for women and
their sexuality arose. Five months later a complete paraplegic
impotence set in; and then both the homosexual tendency and the
aversion to women disappeared. (Fere, _L'Instinct Sexuel_, p.
184.) In such a case, under the influence of disease, excessive
stimulation seems to result in more or less complete sexual
anesthesia, just as temporarily we may be more or less blinded by
excess of light; and functional power reasserts itself under the
influence of a different and normally much weaker stimulus.
Leppmann, who has studied the homosexual manifestations of
previously normal old men toward boys ("Greisenalter und
Kriminalitaet," _Zeitschrift fuer Psychotherapie_, Bd. i, Heft 4,
1909), considers the chief factor to be a flaring up of the
sexual impulse in a perverted direction in an early stage of
morbid cerebral disturbance, not amounting to insanity and not
involving complete irresponsibility. In such cases, Leppmann
believes, the subject may, through his lack of power, be brought
back to the beginning of his sexual life and to the perhaps
unconsciously homosexual attractions of that age.
With the recognition that homosexuality in youth may be due to an as yet
undifferentiated sexual impulse, homosexuality in mature age to a retarded
development on a congenital basis, and homosexuality in sold age to a
return to the attitude of youth, the area of spurious or "pseudo"
homosexuality seems to me to be very much restricted. Most, perhaps all,
authorities still accept the reality of this spurious homosexuality in
heterosexual persons. But they enter into no details concerning it, and
they bring forward no minutely observed cases in which it occurred.
Hirschfeld, in discussing the diagnosis of homosexuality and seeking to
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