Main  Contacts  
Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

CHAPTER I. 

 

INTRODUCTION. 

 

Homosexuality Among Animals--Among the Lower Human Races--The 

Albanians--The Greeks--The Eskimos--The Tribes of the Northwest United 

States--Homosexuality Among Soldiers in Europe--Indifference Frequently 

Manifested by European Lower Classes--Sexual Inversion at 

Rome--Homosexuality in Prisons--Among Men of Exceptional Intellect and 

Moral Leaders--Muret--Michelangelo--Winkelmann--Homosexuality in English 

History--Walt Whitman--Verlaine--Burton's Climatic Theory of 

Homosexuality--The Racial Factor--The Prevalence of Homosexuality Today. 

 

 

Sexual inversion, as here understood, means sexual instinct turned by 

inborn constitutional abnormality toward persons of the same sex. It is 

thus a narrower term than homosexuality, which includes all sexual 

attractions between persons of the same sex, even when seemingly due to 

the accidental absence of the natural objects of sexual attraction, a 

phenomenon of wide occurrence among all human races and among most of the 

higher animals. It is only during recent years that sexual inversion has 

been recognized; previously it was not distinguished from homosexuality in 

general, and homosexuality was regarded as a national custom, as an 

individual vice, or as an unimportant episode in grave forms of 

insanity.[1] We have further to distinguish sexual inversion and all other 

forms of homosexuality from another kind of inversion which usually 

remains, so far as the sexual impulse itself is concerned, heterosexual, 

that is to say, normal. Inversion of this kind leads a person to feel like 

a person of the opposite sex, and to adopt, so far as possible, the 

tastes, habits, and dress of the opposite sex, while the direction of the 

sexual impulse remains normal. This condition I term sexo-esthetic 

inversion, or Eonism. 

 

The nomenclature of the highly important form of sexual 

perversion with which we are here concerned is extremely varied, 

and most investigators have been much puzzled in coming to a 

conclusion as to the best, most exact, and at the same time most 

colorless names to apply to it. 

 

The first in the field in modern times was Ulrichs who, as early 

as 1862, used the appellation "Uranian" (Uranier), based on the 

well-known myth in Plato's _Banquet_. Later he Germanized this 

term into "Urning" for the male, and "Urningin" for the female, 

and referred to the condition itself as "Urningtum." He also 

invented a number of other related terms on the same basis; some 

of these terms have had a considerable vogue, but they are too 

fanciful and high-strung to secure general acceptance. If used in 

other languages than German they certainly should not be used in 

their Germanized shape, and it is scarcely legitimate to use the 

term "Urning" in English. "Uranian" is more correct. 

 

In Germany the first term accepted by recognized scientific 

authorities was "contrary sexual feeling" (Kontraere 

Sexualempfindung). It was devised by Westphal in 1869, and used 

by Krafft-Ebing and Moll. Though thus accepted by the earliest 

authorities in this field, and to be regarded as a fairly 

harmless and vaguely descriptive term, it is somewhat awkward, 

and is now little used in Germany; it was never currently used 

outside Germany. It has been largely superseded by the term 

"homosexuality." This also was devised (by a little-known 

Hungarian doctor, Benkert, who used the pseudonym Kertbeny) in 

the same year (1869), but at first attracted no attention. It 

has, philologically, the awkward disadvantage of being a bastard 

term compounded of Greek and Latin elements, but its 

significance--sexual attraction to the same sex--is fairly clear 

and definite, while it is free from any question-begging 

association of either favorable or unfavorable character. (Edward 

Carpenter has proposed to remedy its bastardly linguistic 

character by transforming it into "homogenic;" this, however, 

might mean not only "toward the same sex," but "of the same 

kind," and in German already possesses actually that meaning.) 

The term "homosexual" has the further advantage that on account 

of its classical origin it is easily translatable into many 


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