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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

languages. It is now the most widespread general term for the 

phenomena we are dealing with, and it has been used by 

Hirschfeld, now the chief authority in this field, as the title 

of his encyclopedic work, _Die Homosexualitaet_. 

 

"Sexual Inversion" (in French "inversion sexuelle," and in 

Italian "inversione sessuale") is the term which has from the 

first been chiefly used in France and Italy, ever since Charcot 

and Magnan, in 1882, published their cases of this anomaly in the 

_Archives de Neurologie_. It had already been employed in Italy 

by Tamassia in the _Revista Sperimentale di Freniatria_, in 1878. 

I have not discovered when and where the term "sexual inversion" 

was first used. Possibly it first appeared in English, for long 

before the paper of Charcot and Magnan I have noticed, in an 

anonymous review of Westphal's first paper in the _Journal of 

Mental Science_ (then edited by Dr. Maudsley) for October, 1871, 

that "Contraere Sexualempfindung" is translated as "inverted 

sexual proclivity." So far as I am aware, "sexual inversion" was 

first used in English, as the best term, by J.A. Symonds in 1883, 

in his privately printed essay, _A Problem in Greek Ethics_. 

Later, in 1897, the same term was adopted, I believe for the 

first time publicly in English, in the present work. 

 

It is unnecessary to refer to the numerous other names which have 

been proposed. (A discussion of the nomenclature will be found in 

the first chapter of Hirschfeld's work, _Die Homosexualitaet_, and 

of some special terms in an article by Schouten, 

_Sexual-Probleme_, December, 1912.) It may suffice to mention the 

ancient theological and legal term "sodomy" (sodomia) because it 

is still the most popular term for this perversion, though, it 

must be remembered, it has become attached to the physical act of 

intercourse _per anum_, even when carried out heterosexually, and 

has little reference to psychic sexual proclivity. This term has 

its origin in the story (narrated in Genesis, ch. xix) of Lot's 

visitors whom the men of Sodom desired to have intercourse with, 

and of the subsequent destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. This 

story furnishes a sufficiently good ground for the use of the 

term, though the Jews do not regard sodomy as the sin of Sodom, 

but rather inhospitality and hardness of heart to the poor (J. 

Preuss, _Biblisch-Talmudische Medizin_, pp. 579-81), and 

Christian theologians also, both Catholic and Protestant (see, 

e.g., _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. iv, p. 199, 

and Hirschfeld, _Homosexualitaet_, p. 742), have argued that it 

was not homosexuality, but their other offenses, which provoked 

the destruction of the Cities of the Plain. In Germany "sodomy" 

has long been used to denote bestiality, or sexual intercourse 

with animals, but this use of the term is quite unjustified. In 

English there is another term, "buggery," identical in meaning 

with sodomy, and equally familiar. "Bugger" (in French, 

_bougre_) is a corruption of "Bulgar," the ancient Bulgarian 

heretics having been popularly supposed to practise this 

perversion. The people of every country have always been eager to 

associate sexual perversions with some other country than their 

own. 

 

The terms usually adopted in the present volume are "sexual 

inversion" and "homosexuality." The first is used more especially 

to indicate that the sexual impulse is organically and innately 

turned toward individuals of the same sex. The second is used 

more comprehensively of the general phenomena of sexual 

attraction between persons of the same sex, even if only of a 

slight and temporary character. It may be admitted that there is 

no precise warrant for any distinction of this kind between the 

two terms. The distinction in the phenomena is, however, still 

generally recognized; thus Iwan Bloch applies the term 

"homosexuality" to the congenital form, and 

"pseudo-homosexuality" to its spurious or simulated forms. Those 

persons who are attracted to both sexes are now usually termed 


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