Main  Contacts  
Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

"bisexual," a more convenient term than "psycho-sexual 

hermaphrodite," which was formerly used. There remains the normal 

person, who is "heterosexual." 

 

Before approaching the study of sexual inversion in cases which we may 

investigate with some degree of scientific accuracy, there is interest in 

glancing briefly at the phenomena as they appear before us, as yet 

scarcely or at all differentiated, among animals, among various human 

races, and at various periods. 

 

Among animals in a domesticated or confined state it is easy to find 

evidence of homosexual attraction, due merely to the absence of the other 

sex.[2] This was known to the ancients; the Egyptians regarded two male 

partridges as the symbol of homosexuality, and Aristotle noted that two 

female pigeons would cover each other if no male was at hand. Buffon 

observed many examples, especially among birds. He found that, if male or 

female birds of various species--such as partridges, fowls, and 

doves--were shut up together, they would soon begin to have sexual 

relations among themselves, the males sooner and more frequently than the 

females. More recently Sainte-Claire Deville observed that dogs, rams, and 

bulls, when isolated, first became restless and dangerous, and then 

acquired a permanent state of sexual excitement, not obeying the laws of 

heat, and leading them to attempts to couple together; the presence of the 

opposite sex at once restored them to normal conditions.[3] Bombarda of 

Lisbon states that in Portugal it is well known that in every herd of 

bulls there is nearly always one bull who is ready to lend himself to the 

perverted whims of his companions.[4] It may easily be observed how a cow 

in heat exerts an exciting influence on other cows, impelling them to 

attempt to play the bull's part. Lacassagne has also noted among young 

fowls and puppies, etc., that, before ever having had relations with the 

opposite sex, and while in complete liberty, they make hesitating attempts 

at intercourse with their own sex.[5] This, indeed, together with similar 

perversions, may often be observed, especially in puppies, who afterward 

become perfectly normal. Among white rats, which are very sexual animals, 

Steinach found that, when deprived of females, the males practise 

homosexuality, though only with males with whom they have long associated; 

the weaker rats play the passive part. But when a female is introduced 

they immediately turn to her; although they are occasionally altogether 

indifferent to sex, they never actually prefer their own sex.[6] 

 

With regard to the playing of the female part by the weaker rats it is 

interesting to observe that Fere found among insects that the passive part 

in homosexual relations is favored by fatigue; among cockchafers it was 

the male just separated from the female who would take the passive part 

(on the rare occasions when homosexual relations occurred) with a fresh 

male.[7] 

 

Homosexuality appears to be specially common among birds. It was among 

birds that it attracted the attention of the ancients, and numerous 

interesting observations have been made in more recent times. Thus Selous, 

a careful bird-watcher, finds that the ruff, the male of the _Machetes 

pugnax_, suffers from sexual repression owing to the coyness of the female 

(the reeve), and consequently the males often resort to homosexual 

intercourse. It is still more remarkable that the reeves also, even in the 

presence of the males, will court each other and have intercourse.[8] We 

may associate this with the high erotic development of birds, the 

difficulty with which tumescence seems to occur in them, and their long 

courtships. 

 

Among the higher animals, again, female monkeys, even when grown up (as 

Moll was informed), behave in a sexual way to each other, though it is 

difficult to say how far this is merely in play. Dr. Seitz, Director of 

the Frankfurt Zooelogical Garden, gave Moll a record of his own careful 

observations of homosexual phenomena among the males and females of 

various animals confined in the Garden (_Antelope cervicapra, Bos Indicus, 

Capra hircus, Ovis steatopyga_).[9] In all such cases we are not concerned 

with sexual inversion, but merely with the accidental turning of the 


Page 3 from 5:  Back   1   2  [3]  4   5   Forward