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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

sexual instinct into an abnormal channel, the instinct being called out 

by an approximate substitute, or even by diffused emotional excitement, in 

the absence of the normal object. 

 

It is probable, however, that cases of true sexual inversion--in which 

gratification is preferably sought in the same sex--may be found among 

animals, although observations have rarely been made or recorded. It has 

been found by Muccioli, an Italian authority on pigeons, that among 

Belgian carrier-pigeons inverted practices may occur, even in the presence 

of many of the other sex.[10] This seems to be true inversion, though we 

are not told whether these birds were also attracted toward the opposite 

sex. The birds of this family appear to be specially liable to sexual 

perversion. Thus M.J. Bailly-Maitre, a breeder of great knowledge and a 

keen observer, wrote to Girard that "they are strange creatures in their 

manners and customs and are apt to elude the most persistent observer. No 

animal is more depraved. Mating between males, and still more frequently 

between females, often occurs at an early age: up to the second year. I 

have had several pairs of pigeons formed by subjects of the same sex who 

for many months behaved as if the mating were natural. In some cases this 

had taken place among young birds of the same nest, who acted like real 

mates, though both subjects were males. In order to mate them productively 

we have had to separate them and shut each of them up for some days with a 

female."[11] In the Berlin Zooelogical Gardens also, it has been noticed 

that two birds of the same sex will occasionally become attached to each 

other and remain so in spite of repeated advances from individuals of 

opposite sex. This occurred, for instance, in the case of two males of the 

Egyptian goose who were thus to all appearance paired, and always kept 

together, vigorously driving away any female that approached. Similarly a 

male Australian sheldrake was paired to a male of another species.[12] 

 

 

Among birds generally, inverted sexuality seems to accompany the 

development of the secondary sexual characters of the opposite sex which 

is sometimes found. Thus, a poultry-breeder describes a hen (colored 

Dorking) crowing like a cock, only somewhat more harshly, as a cockerel 

crows, and with an enormous comb, larger than is ever seen in the male. 

This bird used to try to tread her fellow-hens. At the same time she laid 

early and regularly, and produced "grand chickens."[13] Among ducks, also, 

it has occasionally been observed that the female assumes at the same time 

both male livery and male sexual tendencies. It is probable that such 

observations will be multiplied in the future, and that sexual inversion 

in the true sense will be found commoner among animals than at present it 

appears to be. 

 

Traces of homosexual practices, sometimes on a large scale, have been 

found among all the great divisions of the human race. It would be 

possible to collect a considerable body of evidence under this head.[14] 

Unfortunately, however, the travellers and others on whose records we are 

dependent have been so shy of touching these subjects, and so ignorant of 

the main points for investigation, that it is very difficult to discover 

sexual inversion in the proper sense in any lower race. Travellers have 

spoken vaguely of crimes against nature without defining the precise 

relationship involved nor inquiring how far any congenital impulse could 

be distinguished. 

 

Looking at the phenomena generally, so far as they have been recorded 

among various lower races, we seem bound to recognize that there is a 

widespread natural instinct impelling men toward homosexual relationships, 

and that this has been sometimes, though very exceptionally, seized upon 

and developed for advantageous social purposes. On the whole, however, 

unnatural intercourse (sodomy) has been regarded as an antisocial offense, 

and punishable sometimes by the most serious penalties that could be 

invented. This was, for instance, the case in ancient Mexico, in Peru, 

among the Persians, in China, and among the Hebrews and Mohammedans. 

 

 

Even in very early history it is possible to find traces of homosexuality, 


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