Main  Contacts  
Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

One might be tempted to expect that homosexual practices would be 

encouraged whenever it was necessary to keep down the population. 

Aristotle says that it was allowed by law in Crete for this end. And 

Professor Haddon tells me that at Torres Straits a native advocated sodomy 

on this ground.[18] There seems, however, on the whole, to be little 

evidence pointing to this utilization of the practice. The homosexual 

tendency appears to have flourished chiefly among warriors and warlike 

peoples. During war and the separation from women that war involves, the 

homosexual instinct tends to develop; it flourished, for instance, among 

the Carthaginians and among the Normans, as well as among the warlike 

Dorians, Scythians, Tartars, and Celts,[19] and, when there has been an 

absence of any strong moral feeling against it, the instinct has been 

cultivated and, idealized as a military virtue, partly because it 

counteracts the longing for the softening feminine influences of the home 

and partly because it seems to have an inspiring influence in promoting 

heroism and heightening _esprit de corps_. In the lament of David over 

Jonathan we have a picture of intimate friendship--"passing the love of 

women"--between comrades in arms among a barbarous, warlike race. There is 

nothing to show that such a relationship was sexual, but among warriors in 

New Caledonia friendships that were undoubtedly homosexual were recognized 

and regulated; the fraternity of arms, according to Foley,[20] complicated 

with pederasty, was more sacred than uterine fraternity. We have, 

moreover, a recent example of the same relationships recognized in a 

modern European race--the Albanians. 

 

Hahn, in the course of his _Albanische Studien_ (1854, p. 166), 

says that the young men between 16 and 24 lore boys from about 12 

to 17. A Gege marries at the age of 24 or 25, and then he 

usually, but not always, gives up boy-love. The following passage 

is reported by Hahn as the actual language used to him by an 

Albanian Gege: "The lover's feeling for the boy is pure as 

sunshine. It places the beloved on the same pedestal as a saint. 

It is the highest and most exalted passion of which the human 

breast is capable. The sight of a beautiful youth awakens 

astonishment in the lover, and opens the door of his heart to the 

delight which the contemplation of this loveliness affords. Love 

takes possession of him so completely that all his thought and 

feeling goes out in it. If he finds himself in the presence of 

the beloved, he rests absorbed in gazing on him. Absent, he 

thinks of nought but him. If the beloved unexpectedly appears, he 

falls into confusion, changes color, turns alternately pale and 

red. His heart beats faster and impedes his breathing. He has 

ears and eyes only for the beloved. He shuns touching him with 

the hand, kisses him only on the forehead, sings his praise in 

verse, a woman's never." One of these love-poems of an Albanian 

Gege runs as follows: "The sun, when it rises in the morning, is 

like you, boy, when you are near me. When your dark eye turns 

upon me, it drives my reason from my head." 

 

It should be added that Prof. Weigand, who knew the Albanians 

well, assured Bethe (_Rheinisches Museum fuer Philologie_, 1907, 

p. 475) that the relations described by Hahn are really sexual, 

although tempered by idealism. A German scholar who travelled in 

Albania some years ago, also, assured Naecke (_Jahrbuch fuer 

sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. ix, 1908, p. 327) that he could 

fully confirm Hahn's statements, and that, though it was 

difficult to speak positively, he doubted whether these 

relationships were purely ideal. While most prevalent among the 

Moslems, they are also found among the Christians, and receive 

the blessing of the priest in church. Jealousy is frequently 

aroused, the same writer remarks, and even murder may be 

committed on account of a boy. 

 

It may be mentioned here that among the Tschuktsches, 

Kamschatdals, and allied peoples (according to a Russian 

anthropological journal quoted in _Sexual-Probleme_, January, 

1913, p. 41) there are homosexual marriages among the men, and 


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