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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

occasionally among the women, ritually consecrated and openly 

recognized. 

 

The Albanians, it is possible, belonged to the same stock which produced 

the Dorian Greeks, and the most important and the most thoroughly known 

case of socially recognized homosexuality is that of Greece during its 

period of highest military as well as ethical and intellectual vigor. In 

this case, as in those already mentioned, the homosexual tendency was 

frequently regarded as having beneficial results, which caused it to be 

condoned, if not, indeed, fostered as a virtue. Plutarch repeated the old 

Greek statement that the Beotians, the Lacedemonians, and the Cretans were 

the most warlike stocks because they were the strongest in love; an army 

composed of loving homosexual couples, it was held, would be invincible. 

It appears that the Dorians introduced _paiderastia_, as the Greek form of 

homosexuality is termed, into Greece; they were the latest invaders, a 

vigorous mountain race from the northwest (the region including what is 

now Albania) who spread over the whole land, the islands, and Asia Minor, 

becoming the ruling race. Homosexuality was, of course, known before they 

came, but they made it honorable. Homer never mentions it, and it was not 

known as legitimate to the AEolians or the Ionians. Bethe, who has written 

a valuable study of Dorian _paiderastia_, states that the Dorians admitted 

a kind of homosexual marriage, and even had a kind of boy-marriage by 

capture, the scattered vestiges of this practice indicating, Bethe 

believes, that it was a general custom among the Dorians before the 

invasion of Greece. Such unions even received a kind of religions 

consecration. It was, moreover, shameful for a noble youth in Crete to 

have no lover; it spoke ill for his character. By _paiderastia_ a man 

propagated his virtues, as it were, in the youth he loved, implanting them 

by the act of intercourse. 

 

In its later Greek phases _paiderastia_ was associated less with war than 

with athletics; it was refined and intellectualized by poetry and 

philosophy. It cannot be doubted that both AEschylus and Sophocles 

cultivated boy-love, while its idealized presentation in the dialogues of 

Plato has caused it to be almost identified with his name; thus in the 

early _Charmides_ we have an attractive account of the youth who gives his 

name to the dialogue and the emotions he excites are described. But even 

in the early dialogues Plato only conditionally approved of the sexual 

side of _paiderastia_ and he condemned it altogether in the final 

_Laws_.[21] 

 

The early stages of Greek _paiderastia_ are very interestingly 

studied by Bethe, "Die Dorische Knabenliebe," _Rheinisches Museum 

fuer Philologie_, 1907. J.A. Symonds's essay on the later aspects 

of _paiderastia_, especially as reflected in Greek literature, _A 

Problem in Greek Ethics_, is contained in the early German 

edition of the present study, but (though privately printed in 

1883 by the author in an edition of twelve copies and since 

pirated in another private edition) it has not yet been published 

in English. _Paiderastia_ in Greek poetry has also been studied 

by Paul Brandt, _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vols. 

viii and ix (1906 and 1907), and by Otto Knapp 

(_Anthropophyteia_, vol. iii, pp. 254-260) who seeks to 

demonstrate the sensual side of _paiderastia_. On the other hand, 

Licht, working on somewhat the same lines as Bethe (_Zeitschrift 

fuer Sexualwissenschaft_, August, 1908), deals with the ethical 

element in _paiderastia_, points out its beneficial moral 

influence, and argues that it was largely on this ground that it 

was counted sacred. Licht has also published a learned study of 

_paiderastia_ in Attic comedy (_Anthropophyteia_, vol. vii, 

1910), and remarks that "without _paiderastia_ Greek comedy is 

unthinkable." _Paiderastia_ in the Greek anthology has been fully 

explored by P. Stephanus (_Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, 

vol. ix, 1908, p. 213). Kiefer, who has studied Socrates in 

relation to homosexuality (O. Kiefer, "Socrates und die 

Homosexualitaet," _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. ix, 


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