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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

educated, while they are also subjected to a special physical training, 

which includes massage of the gluteal regions to favor development, 

dilatation of the anus, and epilation (which is not, however, practised by 

Chinese women). At the same time, they are taught music, singing, drawing, 

and the art of poetry. The waiters at the restaurants always know where 

these young gentlemen are to be found when they are required to grace a 

rich man's feast. They are generally accompanied by a guardian, and 

usually nothing very serious takes place, for they know their value, and 

money will not always buy their expensive favors. They are very 

effeminate, luxuriously dressed and perfumed, and they seldom go on foot. 

There are, however, lower orders of such prostitutes.[26] 

 

Homosexuality is easily traceable in India. Dubois referred to houses 

devoted to male prostitution, with men dressed as women, and imitating the 

ways of women.[27] Burton in the "Terminal Essay" to his translation of 

the _Arabian Nights_, states that when in 1845 Sir Charles Napier 

conquered and annexed Sind three brothels of eunuchs and boys were found 

in the small town of Karachi, and Burton was instructed to visit and 

report on them. Hindus, in general, however, it appears, hold 

homosexuality in abhorrence. In Afghanistan homosexuality is more 

generally accepted, and Burton stated that "each caravan is accompanied by 

a number of boys and lads almost in woman's attire, with kohled eyes and 

rouged cheeks, long tresses and hennaed fingers and toes, riding 

luxuriously in camel paniers." 

 

If we turn to the New World, we find that among the American Indians, from 

the Eskimo of Alaska downward to Brazil and still farther south, 

homosexual customs have been very frequently observed. Sometimes they are 

regarded by the tribe with honor, sometimes with indifference, sometimes 

with contempt; but they appear to be always tolerated. Although there are 

local differences, these customs, on the whole, seem to have much in 

common. The best early description which I have been able to find is by 

Langsdorff[28] and concerns the Aleuts of Oonalashka in Alaska: "Boys, if 

they happen to be very handsome," he says, "are often brought up entirely 

in the manner of girls, and instructed in the arts women use to please 

men; their beards are carefully plucked out as soon as they begin to 

appear, and their chins tattooed like those of women; they wear ornaments 

of glass beads upon their legs and arms, bind and cut their hair in the 

same manner as the women, and supply their place with the men as 

concubines. This shocking, unnatural, and immoral practice has obtained 

here even from the remotest times; nor have any measures hitherto been 

taken to repress and restrain it; such men are known under the name of 

_schopans_." 

 

Among the Konyagas Langsdorff found the custom much more common than among 

the Aleuts; he remarks that, although the mothers brought up some of their 

children in this way, they seemed very fond of their offspring. Lisiansky, 

at about the same period, tells us that: "Of all the customs of these 

islanders, the most disgusting is that of men, called _schoopans_, living 

with men, and supplying the place of women. These are brought up from 

their infancy with females, and taught all the feminine arts. They even 

assume the manner and dress of the women so nearly that a stranger would 

naturally take them for what they are not. This odious practice was 

formerly so prevalent that the residence of one of these monsters in a 

house was considered as fortunate; it is, however, daily losing 

ground."[29] He mentions a case in which a priest had nearly married two 

males, when an interpreter chanced to come in and was able to inform him 

what he was doing. 

 

The practice has, however, apparently continued to be fairly common among 

the Alaska Eskimos down to recent times. Thus Dr. Engelmann mentioned to 

me that he was informed by those who had lived in Alaska, especially near 

Point Barrow, that as many as 5 such individuals (regarded by uninstructed 

strangers as "hermaphrodites") might be found in a single comparatively 

small community. It is stated by Davydoff, as quoted by Holmberg,[30] that 


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