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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

similar terms to those addressed by Alcaeus to youths. We know 

that in antiquity feminine homosexuality was regarded as 

especially common in Sparta, Lesbos, and Miletus. Horace, who was 

able to read Sappho's complete poems, states that the objects of 

her love-plaints were the young girls of Lesbos, while Ovid, who 

played so considerable a part in weaving fantastic stories round 

Sappho's name, never claimed that they had any basis of truth. It 

was inevitable that the early Christians should eagerly attack so 

ambiguous a figure, and Tatian (_Oratio ad Graecos_, cap. 52) 

reproached the Greeks that they honored statues of the tribade 

Sappho, a prostitute who had celebrated her own wantonness and 

infatuation. The result is that in modern times there have been 

some who placed Sappho's character in a very bad light and others 

who have gone to the opposite extreme in an attempt at 

"rehabilitation." Thus, W. Mure, in his _History of the Language 

and Literature of Ancient Greece_ (1854, vol. iii, pp. 272-326, 

496-8), dealing very fully with Sappho, is disposed to accept 

many of the worst stories about her, though he has no pronounced 

animus, and, as regards female homosexuality, which he considers 

to be "far more venial" than male homosexuality, he remarks that 

"in modern times it has numbered among its votaries females 

distinguished for refinement of manners and elegant 

accomplishments." Bascoul, on the other hand, will accept no 

statements about Sappho which conflict with modern ideals of 

complete respectability, and even seeks to rewrite her most 

famous ode in accordance with the colorless literary sense which 

he supposes that it originally bore (J.M.F. Bascoul, _La Chaste 

Sappho et le Mouvement Feministe a Athenes_, 1911). 

Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (_Sappho und Simonides_, 1913) also 

represents the antiquated view, formerly championed by Welcker, 

according to which the attribution of homosexuality is a charge 

of "vice," to be repudiated with indignation. Most competent and 

reliable authorities today, however, while rejecting the 

accretions of legend around Sappho's name and not disputing her 

claim to respect, are not disposed to question the personal and 

homosexual character of her poems. "All ancient tradition and the 

character of her extant fragments," says Prof. J.A. Platt 

(_Encyclopedia Britannica_, 11th. ed., art. "Sappho"), "show that 

her morality was what has ever since been known as 'Lesbian.'" 

What exactly that "Lesbian morality" involved, we cannot indeed 

exactly ascertain. "It is altogether idle," as A. Croiset remarks 

of Sappho (_Histoire de la Litterature Grecque_, vol. ii, ch. v), 

"to discuss the exact quality of this friendship or this love, or 

to seek to determine with precision the frontiers, which language 

itself often seems to seek to confuse, of a friendship more or 

less esthetic and sensual, of a love more or less Platonic." (See 

also J.M. Edmonds, _Sappho in the Added Light of the New 

Fragments_, 1912). Iwan Bloch similarly concludes (_Ursprung der 

Syphilis_, vol. ii, 1911, p. 507) that Sappho probably combined, 

as modern investigation shows to be easily possible, lofty ideal 

feelings with passionate sensuality, exactly as happens in normal 

love. 

 

It must also be said that in literature homosexuality in women has 

furnished a much more frequent motive to the artist than homosexuality in 

men. Among the Greeks, indeed, homosexuality in women seldom receives 

literary consecration, and in the revival of the classical spirit at the 

Renaissance it was still chiefly in male adolescents, as we see, for 

instance, in Marino's _Adone_, that the homosexual ideal found expression. 

After that date male inversion was for a long period rarely touched in 

literature, save briefly and satirically, while inversion in women 

becomes a subject which might be treated in detail and even with 

complacence. Many poets and novelists, especially in France, might be 

cited in evidence. 

 

Ariosto, it has been pointed out, has described the homosexual 


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