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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

attractions of women. Diderot's famous novel, _La Religieuse_, 

which, when first published, was thought to have been actually 

written by a nun, deals with the torture to which a nun was put 

by the perverse lubricity of her abbess, for whom, it is said, 

Diderot found a model in the Abbess of Chelles, a daughter of the 

Regent and thus a member of a family which for several 

generations showed a marked tendency to inversion. Diderot's 

narrative has been described as a faithful description of the 

homosexual phenomena liable to occur in convents. Feminine 

homosexuality, especially in convents, was often touched on less 

seriously in the eighteenth century. Thus we find a homosexual 

scene in _Les Plaisirs du Cloitre_, a play written in 1773 (_Le 

Theatre d'Amour an XVIIIe Siecle_, 1910.) Balzac, who treated so 

many psychological aspects of love in a more or less veiled 

manner, has touched on this in _La Fille aux Yeux d'Or_, in a 

vague and extravagantly romantic fashion. Gautier made the 

adventures of a woman who was predisposed to homosexuality, and 

slowly realizes the fact, the central motive of his wonderful 

romance, _Mademoiselle de Maupin_ (1835). He approached the 

subject purely as an artist and poet, but his handling of it 

shows remarkable insight. Gautier based his romance to some 

extent on the life of Madame Maupin or, as she preferred to call 

herself, Mademoiselle Maupin, who was born in 1673 (her father's 

name being d'Aubigny), dressed as a man, and became famous as a 

teacher of fencing, afterward as an opera singer. She was 

apparently of bisexual temperament, and her devotion to women led 

her into various adventures. She ultimately entered a convent, 

and died, at the age of 34, with a reputation for sanctity. (E.C. 

Clayton, _Queens of Song_, vol. i, pp, 52-61; F. Karsch, 

"Mademoiselle Maupin," _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, 

vol. v, 1903, pp. 694-706.) A still greater writer, Flaubert, in 

_Salammbo_ (1862) made his heroine homosexual. Zola has described 

sexual inversion in _Nona_ and elsewhere. Some thirty years ago a 

popular novelist, A. Belot, published a novel called 

_Mademoiselle Giraud, ma Femme_, which was much read; the 

novelist took the attitude of a moralist who is bound to treat 

frankly, but with all decorous propriety, a subject of increasing 

social gravity. The story is that of a man whose bride will not 

allow his approach on account of her own _liaison_ with a female 

friend continued after marriage. This book appears to have given 

origin to a large number of novels, some of which touched the 

question with considerable less affectation of propriety. Among 

other novelists who have dealt with the matter may be mentioned 

Guy de Maupassant (_La Femme de Paul_), Bourget (_Crime 

d'Amour_), Catulle Mendes (_Mephistophela_), and Willy in the 

_Claudine_ series. 

 

Among poets who have used the motive of homosexuality in women 

with more or less boldness may be found Lamartine (_Regina_), 

Swinburne (first series of _Poems and Ballads_), Verlaine 

(_Parallelement_), and Pierre Louys (_Chansons de Bilitis_). The 

last-named book, a collection of homosexual prose-poems, 

attracted considerable attention on publication, as it was an 

attempt at mystification, being put forward as a translation of 

the poems of a newly discovered Oriental Greek poetess; Bilitis 

(more usually Beltis) is the Syrian name for Aphrodite. _Les 

Chansons de Bilitis_ are not without charm, but have been 

severely dealt with by Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (_Sappho und 

Simonides_, 1913, p. 63 et seq.) as "a travesty of Hellenism," 

betraying inadequate knowledge of Greek antiquity. 

 

More interesting, as the work of a woman who was not only highly 

gifted, but herself of homosexual temperament, are the various 

volumes of poems published by "Renee Vivien." This lady, whose 

real name was Pauline Tarn, was born in 1877; her father was of 

Scotch descent, and her mother an American lady from Honolulu. As 

a child she was taken to Paris, and was brought up as a French 


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