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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

before the singer's portrait, and studied hairdressing and 

manicuring in the hope of becoming Miss Garden's maid. When she 

realized that her dream was hopeless she shot herself with a 

revolver. (Cases more or less resembling those here brought 

forward occur from time to time in all parts of the civilized 

world. Reports, mostly from current newspapers, of such cases, as 

well as of simple transvestism, or Eonism, in both women and men, 

will be found in the publications of the Berlin 

Wissenschaftlich-humanitaeren Komitee: the _Monatsberichte_ up to 

1909, then in the _Vierteljahrsberichte_, and from 1913 onward in 

the _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_.) 

 

Yet, until recently, comparatively little has been known of sexual 

inversion in women. Even so lately as 1901 (after the publication of the 

first edition of the present Study), Krafft-Ebing wrote that scarcely 

fifty cases had been recorded. The chief monographs devoted but little 

space to women. 

 

Krafft-Ebing himself, in the earlier editions of _Psychopathia 

Sexualis_, gave little special attention to inversion in women, 

although he published a few cases. Moll, however, included a 

valuable chapter on the subject in his _Kontraere 

Sexualempfindung_, narrating numerous cases, and inversion in 

women also received special attention in the present Study. 

Hirschfeld, however, in his _Homosexualitaet_ (1914) is the first 

authority who has been able to deal with feminine homosexuality 

as completely co-ordinate with masculine homosexuality. The two 

manifestations, masculine and feminine, are placed on the same 

basis and treated together throughout the work. 

 

It is, no doubt, not difficult to account for this retardation in the 

investigation of sexual inversion in women. Notwithstanding the severity 

with which homosexuality in women has been visited in a few cases, for the 

most part men seem to have been indifferent toward it; when it has been 

made a crime or a cause for divorce in men, it has usually been considered 

as no offense at all in women.[145] Another reason is that it is less 

easy to detect in women; we are accustomed to a much greater familiarity 

and intimacy between women than between men, and we are less apt to 

suspect the existence of any abnormal passion. And, allied with this 

cause, we have also to bear in mind the extreme ignorance and the extreme 

reticence of women regarding any abnormal or even normal manifestation of 

their sexual life. A woman may feel a high degree of sexual attraction for 

another woman without realizing that her affection is sexual, and when she 

does realize this, she is nearly always very unwilling to reveal the 

nature of her intimate experience, even with the adoption of precautions, 

and although the fact may be present to her that, by helping to reveal the 

nature of her abnormality, she may be helping to lighten the burden of it 

on other women. Among the numerous confessions voluntarily sent to 

Krafft-Ebing there is not one by a woman. There is, again, the further 

reason that well-marked and fully developed cases of inversion are 

probably rarer in women, though a slighter degree may be more common; in 

harmony with the greater affectability of the feminine organism to slight 

stimuli, and its lesser liability to serious variation.[146] 

 

The same aberrations that are found among men are, however, everywhere 

found among women. Feminine inversion has sometimes been regarded as a 

vice of modern refined civilization. Yet it was familiar to the 

Anglo-Saxons, and Theodore's Penitential in the seventh century assigned a 

penance of three years (considerably less than that assigned to men, or 

for bestiality) to "a woman fornicating with a woman." Among the women of 

savages in all parts of the world homosexuality is found, though it is 

less frequently recorded than among men.[147] 

 

In New Zealand it is stated on the authority of Moerenhout (though I have 

not been able to find the reference) that the women practised Lesbianism. 

In South America, where inversion is common among men, we find similar 

phenomena in women. Among Brazilian tribes Gandavo[148] wrote:-- 

 

"There are certain women among these Indians who determine to be 


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