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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

for her sexual emotions; while (4) conventional propriety recognizes a 

considerable degree of physical intimacy between girls, thus at once 

encouraging and cloaking the manifestations of homosexuality. 

 

The ardent attachments which girls in schools and colleges form to each 

other and to their teachers constitute a subject which is of considerable 

psychological interest and of no little practical importance.[163] These 

girlish devotions, on the borderland between friendship and sexual 

passion, are found in all countries where girls are segregated for 

educational purposes, and their symptoms are, on the whole, singularly 

uniform, though they vary in intensity and character to some extent, from 

time to time and from place to place, sometimes assuming an epidemic form. 

They have been most carefully studied in Italy, where Obici and 

Marchesini--an alienist and a psychologist working in conjunction--have 

analyzed the phenomena with remarkable insight and delicacy and much 

wealth of illustrative material.[164] But exactly the same phenomena are 

everywhere found in English girls' schools, even of the most modern type, 

and in some of the large American women's colleges they have sometimes 

become so acute as to cause much anxiety.[165] On the whole, however, it 

is probable that such manifestations are regarded more indulgently in 

girls' than in boys' schools, and in view of the fact that the 

manifestations of affection are normally more pronounced between girls 

than between boys, this seems reasonable. The head mistress of an English 

training college writes:-- 

 

"My own assumption on such, matters has been that affection does naturally 

belong to the body as well as the mind, and between two women is naturally 

and innocently expressed by, caresses. I have never therefore felt that I 

ought to warn any girl against the physical element in friendship, as 

such. The test I should probably suggest to them would be the same as one 

would use for any other relation--was the friendship helping life as a 

whole, making them keener, kinder, more industrious, etc., or was it 

hindering it?" 

 

Passionate friendships, of a more or less unconsciously sexual character, 

are common even outside and beyond school-life. It frequently happens that 

a period during which a young woman falls in love at a distance with some 

young man of her acquaintance alternates with periods of intimate 

attachment to a friend of her own sex. No congenital inversion is usually 

involved. It generally happens, in the end, either that relationship with 

a man brings the normal impulse into permanent play, or the steadying of 

the emotions in the stress of practical life leads to a knowledge of the 

real nature of such feelings and a consequent distaste for them. In some 

cases, on the other hand, such relationships, especially when formed after 

school-life, are fairly permanent. An energetic emotional woman, not 

usually beautiful, will perhaps be devoted to another who may have found 

some rather specialized lifework, but who may be very unpractical, and who 

has probably a very feeble sexual instinct; she is grateful for her 

friends's devotion, but may not actively reciprocate it. The actual 

specific sexual phenomena generated in such cases vary very greatly. The 

emotion may be latent or unconscious; it may be all on one side; it is 

often more or less recognized and shared. Such cases are on the borderland 

of true sexual inversion, but they cannot be included within its region. 

Sex in these relationships is scarcely the essential and fundamental 

element; it is more or less subordinate and parasitic. There is often a 

semblance of a sex-relationship from the marked divergence of the friends 

in physical and psychic qualities, and the nervous development of one or 

both the friends is sometimes slightly abnormal. We have to regard such 

relationships as hypertrophied friendships, the hypertrophy being due to 

unemployed sexual instinct. 

 

The following narrative is written by a lady who holds a 

responsible educational position: "A friend of mine, two or three 

years older than myself (I am 31), and living in the same house 

with me, has been passing through a very unhappy time. Long 

nervous strain connected with this has made her sleep badly, and 


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