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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

219) and, as regards insanity, by L. Harris-Liston ("Cases of 

Bearded Women," _British Medical Journal_, June 2, 1894). On the 

other hand, J.H. Claiborne ("Hypertrichosis in Women," _New York 

Medical Journal_, June 13, 1914) believes that hair on the face 

and body in a woman is a sign of masculinity; "women with 

hypertrichosis possess masculine traits." 

 

There seems to be very little doubt that fully developed "bearded 

women" are in most, possibly not all, cases decidedly feminine in 

all other respects. A typical instance is furnished by Annie 

Jones, the "Esau Lady" of Virginia. She belonged to a large and 

entirely normal family, but herself possessed a full beard with 

thick whiskers and moustache of an entirely masculine type; she 

also showed short, dark hair on arms and hands resembling a man. 

Apart from this heterogeny, she was entirely normal and feminine. 

At the age of 26, when examined in Berlin, the hair of the head 

was very long, the expression of the face entirely feminine, the 

voice also feminine, the figure elegant, the hands and feet 

entirely of feminine type, the external and internal genitalia 

altogether feminine. Annie Jones was married. Max Bartels, who 

studied Annie Jones and published her portrait (_Zeitschrift fuer 

Ethnologie_, 1891, Heft 3, p. 243), remarks that in these 

respects Annie Jones resembles other "bearded women"; they marry, 

have children, and are able to suckle them. A beard in women 

seems, as Dupre and Duflos believe (_Revue Neurologique_, Aug. 

30, 1901), to be more closely correlated with neuropathy than 

with masculinity; comparing a thousand sane women with a thousand 

insane women in Paris, they found unusual degree of hair or down 

on the face in 23 per cent. of the former and 50 per cent. of the 

latter; but even the sane bearded women frequently belonged to 

neuropathic families. 

 

A tendency to slight widely diffused hypertrichosis of the body 

generally, not localized or highly developed on the face, seems 

much more likely than a beard to be associated with masculinity, 

even when it occurs in little girls. Thus Virchow once presented 

to the Berlin Anthropological Society a little girl of 5 of this 

type who also possessed a deep and rough voice (_Zeitschrift fuer 

Ethnologie_, 1891, Heft 4, p. 469). A typical example of slight 

hypertrichosis in a woman associated with general masculine 

traits is furnished by a description and figure of the body of a 

woman of 56 in an anatomical institute, furnished by C. Strauch 

(_Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie_, 1901, Heft 6, p. 534). In this 

case there was a growth of hair around both nipples and a line of 

hair extended from the pubes to the navel; both these two 

dispositions of hair are very rare in women. (In Vienna among 

nearly 700 women Coe only found a tendency to hair distribution 

toward the navel in about 1 per cent.). While the hair in this 

subject was otherwise fairly normal, there were many 

approximations to the masculine type in other respects: the 

muscles were strongly developed, the bones massive, the limbs 

long, the joints powerful, the hands and feet large, the thorax 

well developed, the lower jaw massive; there was an absence of 

feminine curves on the body and the breasts were scarcely 

perceptible. At the same time the genital organs were normal and 

there had been childbirth. It was further notable that this woman 

had committed suicide by self-strangulation, a rare method which 

requires great resolution and strength of will, as at any moment 

of the process the pressure can be removed. 

There seems little doubt that inverted women frequently tend to show minor 

anomalies of the piliferous system, and especially slight hypertrichosis 

and a masculine distribution of hair. Thus in a very typical case of 

inversion in an Italian girl of 19 who dressed as a man and ran away from 

home, the down on the arms and legs was marked to an unusual extent, and 

there was very abundant hair in the armpits and on the pubes, with a 


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