Main  Contacts  
Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

 

 

 

Ballantyne, some years ago, in discussing congenital 

hypertrichosis (_Manual of Antenatal Pathology_, 1902, pp. 321-6) 

concluded that the theory of arrested development is best 

supported by the facts; persistence of lanugo is such an arrest, 

and hypertrichosis may largely be considered a persistence of 

lanugo. Such a conclusion is still tenable,--though it encounters 

some difficulties and inconsistencies,--and it largely agrees 

with what we know of the condition as associated with inversion 

in women. But we are now beginning to see that this arrested 

development may be definitely associated with anomalies in the 

internal secretions, and even with special chemical defects in 

these secretions. Virile strength has always been associated with 

hair, as the story of Samson bears witness. Ammon found among 

Baden conscripts (_L'Anthropologie_, 1896, p. 285) that when the 

men were divided into classes according to the amount of hair on 

body, the first class, with least hair, have the smallest 

circumference of testicle, the fewest number of men with glans 

penis uncovered, the largest number of infantile voices, the 

largest proportion of blue eyes and fair hair, the smallest 

average height, weight, and chest circumference, while in all 

these respects the men with hairy bodies were at the other 

extreme. It has been known from antiquity that in men early 

castration affects the growth of hair. It is now known that in 

women the presence or absence of the ovary and, other glands 

affects the hair, as well as sexual development. Thus Hegar 

(_Beitraege zur Geburtshuelfe und Gynaekologie_, vol. i, p. 111, 

1898) described a girl with pelvis of infantile type and uterine 

malformation who had been unusually hairy on face and body from 

infancy, with masculine arrangement of hair on pubes and abdomen; 

menstruation was scanty, breasts atrophic; the hair was of lanugo 

type; we see here how in women infantile and masculine 

characteristics are associated with, and both probably dependent 

on, defects in the sexual glands. Plant (_Centralblatt fuer 

Gynaekologie_, No. 9, 1896) described another girl with very small 

ovaries, rudimentary uterus, small vagina, and prominent nymphae, 

in whom menstruation was absent, hair on head long and strong, 

but hair absent in armpits and scanty on mons veneris. These two 

cases seem inconsistent as regards hair, and we should now wish 

to know the condition of the other internal glands. The thyroid, 

for instance, it is now known, controls the hair, as well as do 

the sexual glands; and the thyroid, as Gautier has shown 

(Academie de Medecine, July 24, 1900) elaborates arsenic and 

iodine, which nourish the skin and hair; he found that the 

administration of sodium cacodylate to young women produced 

abundant growth of hair on head. Again, the kidneys, and 

especially the adrenal glands, influence the hair. It has long 

been known that in girls with congenital renal tumors there is an 

abnormally early growth of axillary and pubic hair; Goldschwend 

(_Praeger medizinische Wochenschrift_, Nos. 37 and 38, 1910) has 

described the case of a woman of 39, with small ovaries and 

adrenal tumor, in whom hair began to grow on chin and cheeks. 

(See also C.T. Ewart, _Lancet_, May 19, 1915.) Once more, the 

glans hypophysis also affects hair growth and it has been found 

by Levi (quoted in _Archives d'Anthropologie Criminelle_, 

August-September, 1912, p. 711) that the administration of 

hypophysis extract to an infantile, hairless woman of 27, without 

sexual feeling, produced a general tendency to growth of hair. 

Such facts not only help to explain the anomalies of hair 

development, but also indicate the direction in which we may find 

an explanation of the anomalies of the sexual impulse. 

 

Apart from the complicated problem presented by the hair, there are 

genuine approximations to the masculine type. The muscles tend to be 

everywhere firm, with a comparative absence of soft connective tissue; so 

that an inverted woman may give an unfeminine impression to the sense of 


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