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 Catharina Margaretha Lincken, who married another woman, somewhat
after the manner of the Hungarian Countess Sarolta Vay (i.e., with the aid
of an artificial male organ), was condemned to death for sodomy, and
executed in 1721 at the age of 27 (F.C. Mueller, "Ein weiterer Fall von
contraerer Sexualempfindung," _Friedrich's Blaetter fuer Gerichtliche
Medizin_, Heft 4, 1891). The most fully investigated case of sexual
inversion in a woman in modern times is that of Countess Sarolta Vay
(_Friedrich's Blaetter_, Heft, 1, 1891; also Krafft-Ebing, _Psychopathia
Sexualis_, Eng. trans. of 10th. ed., 416-427; also summarized in Appendix
E of earlier editions of the present Study). Sarolta always dressed as a
man, and went through a pseudo-marriage with a girl who was ignorant of
the real sex of her "husband." She was acquitted and allowed to return
home and continue dressing as a man.
 Anna Rueling has some remarks on this point, _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle
Zwischenstufen_, vol. vii, 1905, p. 141 et seq.
 This, of course, by no means necessarily indicates the existence of
sexual inversion, any more than the presence of feminine traits in
distinguished men. I have elsewhere pointed out (e.g., _Man and Woman_,
5th ed., 1915, p. 488) that genius in either sex frequently involves the
coexistence of masculine, feminine, and infantile traits.
 Various references to Queen Hatschepsu are given by Hirschfeld (_Die
Homosexualitaet_, p. 739). Hirschfeld's not severely critical list of
distinguished homosexual persons includes 18 women. It would not be
difficult to add others.
 Sophie Hochstetter, in a study of Queen Christina in the _Jahrbuch
fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_ (vol. ix, 1908, p. 168 et seq.), regards
her as bisexual, while H.J. Schouten (_Monatsschrift fuer
Kriminalanthropologie_, 1912, Heft 6) concludes that she was homosexual,
and believes that it was Monaldeschi's knowledge on this point which led
her to instigate his murder.
 Cf. Hans Freimark, _Helena Petrovna Blavatsky_; Levetzow, "Louise
Michel," _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. vii, 1905, p. 307 et
 Rosa Bonheur, the painter, is a specially conspicuous example of
pronounced masculinity in, a woman of genius. She frequently dressed as a
man, and when dressed as a woman her masculine air occasionally attracted
the attention of the police. See Theodore Stanton's biography.
 There is some difference of opinion as to whether there is less real
delinquency among women (see Havelock Ellis, _Man and Woman_, 6th ed.,
1915, p. 469), but we are here concerned with judicial criminality.
 This apparently widespread opinion is represented by the remark of a
young man in the eighteenth century (concerning the Lesbian friend of the
woman he wishes to marry), quoted in the Comte de Tilly's _Souvenirs_: "I
confess that that is a kind of rivalry which causes me no annoyance; on
the contrary it amuses me, and I am immoral enough to laugh at it." That
attitude of the educated and refined was not probably shared by the
populace. Madame de Lamballe, who was guillotined at the Revolution, was
popularly regarded as a tribade, and it was said that on this account her
charming head received the special insults of the mob.
 Havelock Ellis, _Man and Woman_, 5th ed., 1915, especially chapters
xiii and xv.
 Karsch (_Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. iii, 1901, pp.
85-9) brings together some passages concerning homosexuality in women
among various peoples.
 Gandavo, quoted by Lomaeco, _Archivio per l'Antropologia_, 1889,
 _Journal Anthropological Institute_, July-Dec., 1904, p. 342.
 G.H. Lowie, "The Assiniboine," Am. Museum of Nat. Hist.,
_Anthropological Papers_, New York, 1909, vol. xiv, p. 223; W. Jones, "Fox
Texts," _Publications of Am. Ethnological Soc._, Leyden, 1907, vol. i, p.
151; quoted by D.C. McMurtrie, "A Legend of Lesbian Love Among the North
American Indians," _Urologic Review_, April, 1914.
 _Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie_, Heft 6, 1899, p. 669.
 I. Bloch, _Die Prostitution_, vol. i, pp. 180, 181.
 Corre, _Crime en Pays Creoles_, 1889.
 In a Spanish prison, some years ago, when a new governor endeavored
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