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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

so describe themselves; a certain proportion of these combine great 

physical and, especially, mental energy with this nervousness; all these 

are doubtless of neurotic temperament.[184] Very few can be said to be 

conspicuously lacking in energy. On the whole, therefore, a large 

proportion of these inverted individuals are passing through life in an 

unimpaired state of health, which enables them to do at least their fair 

share of work in the world; in a considerable proportion of my cases that 

work is of high intellectual value. Only in 5 cases, it will be seen, or 

at most 6, can the general health be said to be distinctly bad. 

 

This result may, perhaps, seem surprising. It must, however, be remembered 

that my cases do not, on the whole, represent the class which alone the 

physician is usually able to bring forward: i.e., the sexual inverts who 

are suffering from a more or less severe degree of complete nervous 

breakdown. 

 

There is no frequent relationship between homosexuality and 

insanity, and such homosexuality as is found in asylums is mostly 

of a spurious character. This point was specially emphasized by 

Naecke (e.g., "Homosexualitaet und Psychose," _Zeitschrift fuer 

Psichiatrie_, vol. lxviii, No. 3, 1911). He quoted the opinions 

of various distinguished alienists as to the rarity with which 

they had met genuine inverts, and recorded his own experiences. 

He had never met a genuine invert in the asylum throughout his 

extensive experience, although he was quite willing to admit that 

there may be unrecognized inverts in asylums, and one patient 

informed him, after leaving, that he was inverted, and had 

attracted the attention of the police both before and afterward, 

though nothing happened in the asylum. Among 1500 patients in the 

asylum during one year, active _pedicatio_ occurred in about 1 

per cent. of cases, these patients being frequently idiots or 

imbeciles and at the same time masturbators, solitary or mutual. 

Hirschfeld informed Naecke that, among homosexual persons, 

hysterical conditions (not usually on hereditary basis) are 

fairly common, and neurasthenia of high degree decidedly 

frequent, but though stages of depression are common he had never 

seen pure melancholia and very seldom mania, but paranoiac 

delusional ideas frequently, and he agreed with Bryan of 

Broadmoor that religious delusions are not uncommon. General 

paralysis occurs, but is comparatively rare, and the same may be 

said of dementia praecox. On the whole, although Hirschfeld was 

unable to give precise figures, there was no reason whatever to 

suppose an abnormal prevalence of insanity. This was Naecke's own 

view. It is quite true, Naecke concluded, that homosexual actions 

occur in every form of psychosis, especially in congenital and 

secondary dements, and at periods of excitement, but we are here 

more concerned with "pseudo-homosexuality" than with true 

inversion. Hirschfeld finds that 75 per cent. inverts are of 

sound heredity; this seems too large a proportion; in any case 

allowance must be made for differences in method and minuteness 

of investigation. 

 

I am fairly certain that thorough investigation would very considerably 

enlarge the proportion of cases with morbid heredity. At the same time 

this enlargement would be chiefly obtained by bringing minor abnormalities 

to the front, and it would then have to be shown how far the families of 

average or normal persons are free from such abnormalities. The question 

is sometimes asked: What family is free from neuropathic taint? At present 

it is difficult to answer this question precisely. There is good ground to 

believe that a fairly large proportion of families are free from such 

taint. In any case it seems probable that the families to which the 

inverted belong do not usually present such profound signs of nervous 

degeneration as we were formerly led to suppose. What we vaguely call 

"eccentricity" is common among them; insanity is much rarer. 

 

 

FIRST APPEARANCE OF HOMOSEXUAL INSTINCT.--Out of 72 cases, in 8 the 

instinct veered round to the same sex in adult age or at all events after 


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