Main  Contacts  
Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

 

 

MASTURBATION.--Moreau believed that masturbation was a cause of sexual 

inversion, and Krafft-Ebing looked upon it as leading to all sorts of 

sexual perversions; the same opinion was currently repeated by many 

writers. It is not now accepted. Moll emphatically rejected the idea that 

masturbation can be the cause of inversion; Naecke repeatedly denies that 

masturbation, any more than seduction, can ever produce true inversion; 

Hirschfeld attaches to it no etiological significance. Many years ago I 

gave special attention to this point and reached a similar conclusion. 

That masturbation, especially at an early age, may sometimes enfeeble the 

sexual activities, and aid the manifestations of inversion, I certainly 

believe. But beyond this there is little in the history of my male cases 

to indicate masturbation as a cause of inversion. It is true that 44 out 

of 51 admit that they have practised masturbation,--at all events, 

occasionally, or at some period in their lives,--and it is possible that 

this proportion is larger than that found among normal people. Even if so, 

however, it is not difficult to account for, bearing in mind the fact that 

the homosexual person has not the same opportunities as has the 

heterosexual person to gratify his instincts, and that masturbation may 

sometimes legitimately appear to him as the lesser of two evils.[191] Not 

only has masturbation been practised at no period in at least 7 of the 

cases (for concerning several I have no information), but in several 

others it was never practised until long after the homosexual instinct had 

appeared, in 1 case not till the age of 40, and then only occasionally. In 

at least 8 it was only practised at puberty; in at least 8, however, it 

began before the age of puberty; at least 9 left off before about the age 

of 20. Unfortunately, as yet, we have little definite evidence as to the 

prevalence and extent of masturbation among normal individuals. 

 

Among the women masturbation is found in at least 5 cases out of 7. In 1 

case there was no masturbation until comparatively late in life, and then 

only at rare intervals and under exceptional circumstances. In another 

case, some years after the homosexual attraction had been experienced, it 

was practised, though not in excess, from the age of puberty for about 

four years, and then abandoned; during these years the physical sexual 

feelings were more imperative than they were afterward felt to be. In 2 

cases masturbation was learned spontaneously soon after puberty, and in 1 

of these practised in excess before the manifestations of inversion became 

definite. In all cases the subjects are emphatic in asserting that this 

practice neither led to, nor was caused by, the homosexual attraction, 

which they regard as a much higher feeling, and it must be added that the 

occasional practice of masturbation is very far from rare among fairly 

normal women.[192] 

 

While this is so, I am certainly inclined to believe that an early and 

excessive indulgence in masturbation, though not an adequate cause, is a 

favoring condition for the development of inversion, and that this is 

especially so in women. The sexual precocity indicated by early and 

excessive masturbation doubtless sometimes reveals an organism already 

predisposed to homosexuality. But, apart from this, when masturbation 

arises spontaneously at an early age on a purely physical basis it seems 

to tend to produce a divorce between the physical and the psychic aspects 

of sexual love. The sexual manifestations are all diverted into this 

physical direction, and the child is ignorant that such phenomena are 

normally allied to love; then, when a more spiritual attraction appears 

with adolescent development, this divorce is perpetuated. Instead of the 

physical and psychic feelings appearing together when the age for sexual 

attraction comes, the physical feelings are prematurely twisted from their 

natural end, and it becomes abnormally easy for a person of the same sex 

to step in and take the place rightfully belonging to a person of the 

opposite sex. This has certainly seemed to me the course of events in some 

cases I have observed. 

 

 

ATTITUDE TOWARD THE OPPOSITE SEX.--In 17 cases (of whom 5 are married and 

others purposing to marry) there is sexual attraction to both sexes, a 


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