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homosexuality of these players became, during the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries, so notorious that they constituted a class requiring
special regulation as Joro, or prostitutes.
 This was remarked by even the earliest modern writers on
homosexuality, like Hoessli. See Hirschfeld, "Vom Wesen der Liebe,"
_Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. viii, 1906, p. 124 et seq.
 Similarly Numa Praetorius asserts (_Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle
Zwischenstufen_, vol. viii, p. 732) that even the most virile homosexual
men exhibit feminine traits, and adds that we could scarcely expect it to
be otherwise when we find how constantly homosexual women show masculine
 Naecke, "Die Diagnose der Homosexualitaet," _Neurologisches
Centralblatt_, April 16, 1908.
 So also among American boarding-school girls. Thus Margaret Otis
(_Journal of Abnormal Psychology_, June, 1913) has described the
attraction which negro girls exert on white girls at school. The
correspondence of these lovers, and sometimes their method of sex
gratification, may occasionally be of an even coarsely passionate nature.
 See "Sexual Selection in Man," vol. iv of these _Studies_.
 Hirschfeld (_Die Homosexualitaet_, p. 283) found that 55 per cent. of
inverts are attracted to qualities unlike their own, and 45 per cent. to
qualities resembling their own, without regard to whether these qualities
belonged to the secondary sexual sphere. It may be added that as regards
the age of the persons they are attracted to, Hirschfeld (p. 281) admits
two main groups, each including about 45 per cent. of the homosexual;
_ephebophils_, attracted to youths between 14 and 21, and _androphils_,
attracted to adults in the prime of life. This division, as may be seen
from the histories included in the present volume, seems to hold good of
British and American inverts.
 Hirschfeld, _Die Homosexualitaet_, ch. v.
 Krafft-Ebing tells of an inverted physician (a man of masculine
development and tastes) who had had sexual relations with 600 more or less
inverted men. He observed no tendency to sexual malformation among them,
but very frequently an approximation to a feminine form of body, as well
as insufficient hair, delicate complexion, and high voice. Well-developed
breasts were not rare, and some 10 per cent, showed a taste for feminine
 A similar condition of gynecomasty has been observed in connection
with inversion by Moll, Laurent, Wey, etc. Olano ("La Secrecion Mamaria en
los Invertidos Sexuales," _Archivos de Criminologia_, May, 1902, p. 305)
further observed a certain amount of mammary secretion in an inverted man,
20 years of age, in Lima.
 Hirschfeld finds. 7 per cent, inverts left-handed, and 6 per cent,
partly so. Fliess attaches special importance to left-handedness in
inversion, believing that in left-handed men feminine secondary sexual
characters are marked, and in left-handed women masculine sexual character
(_Der Ablauf des Lebens_, 1906). I am not prepared to deny this statement,
but, more evidence is needed.
 This point has been discussed by Hirschfeld, _Die Homosexualitaet_,
 Bloch (_The Sexual Life of Our Time_, p. 500) attaches importance to
this peculiarity, but it must be remembered that a high-pitched voice
occurs frequently in undoubtedly heterosexual men in whom it seems often
associated with high intellectual ability (Havelock Ellis, _A Study of
British Genius_, p. 200).
 See, e.g., Hirschfeld, _Die Homosexualitaet_, p. 151.
 On the general signs of these conditions, see, e.g., H. Meige,
"L'Infantilisme, Le Feminisme et les Hermaphrodites Antiques,"
_L'Anthropologie_. 1895; also Hastings Gilford, "Infantilism," _Lancet_,
February 28 and March 7, 1914.
 Merzbach has dealt with the tendency of inverts to adopt special
professions: "Homosexualitaet und Beruf," _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle
Zwischenstufen_, vol. iv, 1902.
 Moll's experience in Germany also reveals the prevalence of
inversion among literary men, though, of all occupations, he found the
highest proportion among actors. Jaeger has referred to the frequency of
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