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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

like Magnan and Gley, have adopted this phrase in a modified form, 

considering that in inversion a female brain is combined with a male body 

or male glands. This is, however, not an explanation. It merely 

crystallizes into an epigram the superficial impression of the 

matter.[232] 

 

We can probably grasp the nature of the abnormality better if we reflect 

on the development of the sexes and on the latent organic bisexuality in 

each sex. At an early stage of development the sexes are 

indistinguishable, and throughout life the traces of this early community 

of sex remain. The hen fowl retains in a rudimentary form the spurs which 

are so large and formidable in her lord, and sometimes she develops a 

capacity to crow, or puts on male plumage. Among mammals the male 

possesses useless nipples, which occasionally even develop into breasts, 

and the female possesses a clitoris, which is merely a rudimentary penis, 

and may also develop. The sexually inverted person does not usually 

possess any gross exaggeration of these signs of community with the 

opposite sex. But, as we have seen, there are a considerable number of 

more subtle approximations to the opposite sex in inverted persons, both 

on the physical and the psychic side. Putting the matter in a purely 

speculative shape, it may be said that at conception the organism is 

provided with about 50 per cent. of male germs and about 50 per cent. of 

female germs, and that, as development proceeds, either the male or the 

female germs assume the upper hand, until in the maturely developed 

individual only a few aborted germs of the opposite sex are left. In the 

homosexual, however, and in the bisexual, we may imagine that the process 

has not proceeded normally, on account of some peculiarity in the number 

or character of either the original male germs or female germs, or both, 

the result being that we have a person who is organically twisted into a 

shape that is more fitted for the exercise of the inverted than of the 

normal sexual impulse, or else equally fitted for both.[233] 

 

The conception of the latent bisexuality of all males and females 

cannot fail to be fairly obvious to intelligent observers of the 

human body. It emerges at an early period in the history of 

philosophic thought, and from the first was occasionally used for 

the explanation of homosexuality. Plato's myth in the _Banquet_ 

and the hermaphroditic statues of antiquity show how acute minds, 

working ahead of science, exercised themselves with these 

problems. (For a fully illustrated study of the ancient 

conception of hermaphroditism in sculpture see L.S.A.M. von 

Roemer, "Ueber die Androgynische Idee des Lebens," _Jahrbuch fuer 

sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. v, 1903, pp. 711-939.) Parmenides, 

following Alcmaeon, the philosophic physician who discovered that 

the brain is the central organ of intellect, remarks Gomperz 

(_Greek Thinkers_, Eng. tr., vol. i, p. 183), used the idea of 

variation in the proportion of male and female generative 

elements to account for idiosyncrasies of sexual character. After 

an immense interval Hoessli, the inverted Swiss man-milliner, in 

his _Eros_ (1838) put forth the Greek view anew. Schopenhauer, 

again from the philosophical side, recognized the bisexuality of 

the human individual (see Juliusburger, _Allgemeine Zeitschrift 

fuer Psychiatrie_, 1912, p. 630), and Ulrichs, from 1862 onward, 

adopted a similar doctrine, on a Platonic basis, to explain the 

"Uranian" constitution. After this the idea began to be more 

precisely developed from the scientific side, though not at first 

with reference to homosexuality, and more especially by the great 

pioneers of the doctrine of Evolution. Darwin emphasized the 

significance of the facts on this point, as later Weismann, while 

Haeckel, who was one of the earliest Darwinians, has in recent 

years clearly recognized the bearing on the interpretation of 

homosexuality of the fact that the ancestors of the vertebrates 

were hermaphrodites, as vertebrates themselves still are in their 

embryonic disposition (Haeckel, in _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle 


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