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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

 

 

It has often been noted since and remains a remarkable fact. 

 

There cannot be the slightest doubt that intellectual and 

artistic abilities of the highest order have frequently been 

associated with a congenitally inverted sexual temperament. There 

has been a tendency among inverts themselves to discover their 

own temperament in many distinguished persons on evidence of the 

most slender character. But it remains a demonstrable fact that 

numerous highly distinguished persons, of the past and the 

present, in various countries, have been inverts. I may here 

refer to my own observations on this point in the preface. 

Mantegazza (_Gli Amori degli Uomini_) remarks that in his own 

restricted circle he is acquainted with "a French publicist, a 

German poet, an Italian statesman, and a Spanish jurist, all men 

of exquisite taste and highly cultivated mind," who are sexually 

inverted. Krafft-Ebing, in the preface to his _Psychopathia 

Sexualis_, referring to the "numberless" communications he has 

received from these "step-children of nature," remarks that "the 

majority of the writers are men of high intellectual and social 

position, and often possess very keen emotions." Raffalovich 

(_Uranisme_, p. 197) names among distinguished inverts, Alexander 

the Great, Epaminondas, Virgil, the great Conde, Prince Eugene, 

etc. (The question of Virgil's inversion is discussed in the 

_Revista di Filologia_, 1890, fas. 7-9, but I have not been able 

to see this review.) Moll, in his _Beruehmte Homosexuelle_ (1910, 

in the series of _Grenzfragen des Nerven- und Seelenlebens_) 

discusses the homosexuality of a number of eminent persons, for 

the most part with his usual caution and sagacity; speaking of 

the alleged homosexuality of Wagner he remarks, with entire 

truth, that "the method of arguing the existence of homosexuality 

from the presence of feminine traits must be decisively 

rejected." Hirschfeld has more recently included in his great 

work _Die Homosexualitaet_ (1913, pp. 650-674) two lists, ancient 

and modern, of alleged inverts among the distinguished persons of 

history, briefly stating the nature of the evidence in each case. 

They amount to nearly 300. Not all of them, however, can be 

properly described as distinguished. Thus we end in the list 43 

English names; of these at least half a dozen were noblemen who 

were concerned in homosexual prosecutions, but were of no 

intellectual distinction. Others, again, are of undoubted 

eminence, but there is no good reason to regard them as 

homosexual; this is the case, for instance, as regards Swift, who 

may have been mentally abnormal, but appears to have been 

heterosexual rather than homosexual; Fletcher, of whom we know 

nothing definite in this respect, is also included, as well as 

Tennyson, whose youthful sentimental friendship for Arthur Hallam 

is exactly comparable to that of Montaigne for Etienne de la 

Boetie, yet Montaigne is not included in the list. It may be 

added, however, that while some of the English names in the list 

are thus extremely doubtful, it would have been possible to add 

some others who were without doubt inverts. 

 

It has not, I think, been noted--largely because the evidence was 

insufficiently clear--that among moral leaders, and persons with strong 

ethical instincts, there is a tendency toward the more elevated forms of 

homosexual feeling. This may be traced, not only in some of the great 

moral teachers of old, but also in men and women of our own day. It is 

fairly evident why this should be so. Just as the repressed love of a 

woman or a man has, in normally constituted persons, frequently furnished 

the motive power for an enlarged philanthropic activity, so the person 

who sees his own sex also bathed in sexual glamour, brings to his work of 

human service an ardor wholly unknown to the normally constituted 

individual; morality to him has become one with love.[50] I am not 

prepared here to insist on this point, but no one, I think, who studies 

sympathetically the histories and experiences of great moral leaders can 

fail in many cases to note the presence of this feeling, more or less 


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