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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

finely sublimated from any gross physical manifestation. 

 

If it is probable that in moral movements persons of homosexual 

temperament have sometimes become prominent, it is undoubtedly true, 

beyond possibility of doubt, that they have been prominent in religion. 

Many years ago (in 1885) the ethnologist, Elie Reclus, in his charming 

book, _Les Primitifs_,[51] setting forth the phenomena of homosexuality 

among the Eskimo Innuit tribe, clearly insisted that from time immemorial 

there has been a connection between the invert and the priest, and showed 

how well this connection is illustrated by the Eskimo _schupans_. Much 

more recently, in his elaborate study of the priest, Horneffer discusses 

the feminine traits of priests and shows that, among the most various 

peoples, persons of sexually abnormal and especially homosexual 

temperament have assumed the functions of priesthood. To the popular eye 

the unnatural is the supernatural, and the abnormal has appeared to be 

specially close to the secret Power of the World. Abnormal persons are 

themselves of the same opinion and regard themselves as divine. As 

Horneffer points out, they often really possess special aptitude.[52] 

Karsch in his _Gleichgeschlechtliche Leben der Naturvoelker_ (1911) has 

brought out the high religious as well as social significance of castes of 

cross-dressed and often homosexual persons among primitive peoples. At the 

same time Edward Carpenter in his remarkable book, _Intermediate Types 

among Primitive Folk_ (1914), has shown with much insight how it comes 

about that there is an organic connection between the homosexual 

temperament and unusual psychic or divinatory powers. Homosexual men were 

non-warlike and homosexual women non-domestic, so that their energies 

sought different outlets from those of ordinary men and women; they became 

the initiators of new activities. Thus it is that from among them would in 

some degree issue not only inventors and craftsmen and teachers, but 

sorcerers and diviners, medicine-men and wizards, prophets and priests. 

Such persons would be especially impelled to thought, because they would 

realize that they were different from other people; treated with reverence 

by some and with contempt by others, they would be compelled to face the 

problems of their own nature and, indirectly, the problems of the world 

generally. Moreover, Carpenter points out, persons in whom the masculine 

and feminine temperaments were combined would in many cases be persons of 

intuition and complex mind beyond their fellows, and so able to exercise 

divination and prophecy in a very real and natural sense.[53] 

 

This aptitude of the invert for primitive religion, for sorcery and 

divination, would have its reaction on popular feeling, more especially 

when magic and the primitive forms of religion began to fall into 

disrepute. The invert would be regarded as the sorcerer of a false and 

evil religion and be submerged in the same ignominy. This point has been 

emphasized by Westermarck in the instructive chapter on homosexuality in 

his great work on Moral Ideas.[54] He points out the significance of the 

fact, at the first glance apparently inexplicable, that homosexuality in 

the general opinion of medieval Christianity was constantly associated, 

even confounded, with heresy, as we see significantly illustrated by the 

fact that in France and England the popular designation for homosexuality 

is derived from the Bulgarian heretics. It was, Westermarck believes, 

chiefly as a heresy and out of religious zeal that homosexuality was so 

violently reprobated and so ferociously punished. 

 

In modern Europe we find the strongest evidence of the presence of what 

may fairly be called true sexual inversion when we investigate the men of 

the Renaissance. The intellectual independence of those days and the 

influence of antiquity seem to have liberated and fully developed the 

impulses of those abnormal individuals who would otherwise have found no 

clear expression, and passed unnoticed.[55] 

 

Muret, the Humanist, may perhaps be regarded as a typical example of the 

nature and fate of the superior invert of the Renaissance. Born in 1526 at 

Muret (Limousin), of poor but noble family, he was of independent, 


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