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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

somewhat capricious character, unable to endure professors, and 

consequently he was mainly his own teacher, though he often sought advice 

from Jules-Cesar Scaliger. Muret was universally admired in his day for 

his learning and his eloquence, and is still regarded not only as a great 

Latinist and a fine writer, but as a notable man, of high intelligence, 

and remarkable, moreover, for courtesy in polemics in an age when that 

quality was not too common. His portrait shows a somewhat coarse and 

rustic but intelligent face. He conquered honor and respect before he died 

in 1585, at the age of 59. In early life Muret wrote wanton erotic poems 

to women which seem based on personal experience. But in 1553 we find him 

imprisoned in the Chatelet for sodomy and in danger of his life, so that 

he thought of starving himself to death. Friends, however, obtained his 

release and he settled in Toulouse. But the very next year he was burnt in 

effigy in Toulouse, as a Huguenot and sodomist, this being the result of a 

judicial sentence which had caused him to flee from the city and from 

France. Four years later he had to flee from Padua owing to a similar 

accusation. He had many friends but none of them protested against the 

charge, though they aided him to escape from the penalty. It is very 

doubtful whether he was a Huguenot, and whenever in his works he refers to 

pederasty it is with strong disapproval. But his writings reveal 

passionate friendship for men, and he seems to have expended little energy 

in combating a charge which, if false, was a shameful injustice to him. It 

was after fleeing into Italy and falling ill of a fever from fatigue and 

exposure that Muret is said to have made the famous retort (to the 

physician by his bedside who had said: "Faciamus experimentum in anima 

vili"): "Vilem animam appellas pro qua Christus non dedignatus est 

mori."[56] 

 

A greater Humanist than Muret, Erasmus himself, seems as a young man, when 

in the Augustinian monastery of Stein, to have had a homosexual attraction 

to another Brother (afterward Prior) to whom he addressed many 

passionately affectionate letters; his affection seems, however, to have 

been unrequited.[57] 

 

As the Renaissance developed, homosexuality seems to become more prominent 

among distinguished persons. Poliziano was accused of pederasty. Aretino 

was a pederast, as Pope Julius II seems also to have been. Ariosto wrote 

in his satires, no doubt too extremely:-- 

 

"Senza quel vizio son pochi umanisti."[58] 

 

Tasso had a homosexual strain in his nature, but he was of weak and 

feminine constitution, sensitively emotional and physically frail.[59] 

 

It is, however, among artists, at that time and later, that homosexuality 

may most notably be traced. Leonardo da Vinci, whose ideals as revealed in 

his work are so strangely bisexual, lay under homosexual suspicion in his 

youth. In 1476, when he was 24 years of age, charges were made against him 

before the Florentine officials for the control of public morality, and 

were repeated, though they do not appear to have been substantiated. There 

is, however, some ground for supposing that Leonardo was imprisoned in his 

youth.[60] Throughout life he loved to surround himself with beautiful 

youths and his pupils were more remarkable for their attractive appearance 

than for their skill; to one at least of them he was strongly attached, 

while there is no record of any attachment to a woman. Freud, who has 

studied Leonardo with his usual subtlety, considers that his temperament 

was marked by "ideal homosexuality."[61] 

 

Michelangelo, one of the very chief artists of the Renaissance period, we 

cannot now doubt, was sexually inverted. The evidence furnished by his own 

letters and poems, as well as the researches of numerous recent 

workers,--Parlagreco, Scheffler, J.A. Symonds, etc.,--may be said to have 

placed this beyond question.[62] He belonged to a family of 5 brothers, 4 

of whom never married, and so far as is known left no offspring; the fifth 

only left 1 male heir. His biographer describes Michelangelo as "a man of 

peculiar, not altogether healthy, nervous temperament." He was indifferent 

to women; only in one case, indeed, during his long life is there evidence 


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