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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

even of friendship with a woman, while he was very sensitive to the beauty 

of men, and his friendships were very tender and enthusiastic. At the 

same time there is no reason to suppose that he formed any physically 

passionate relationships with men, and even his enemies seldom or never 

made this accusation against him. We may probably accept the estimate of 

his character given by Symonds:-- 

 

Michelangelo Buonarotti was one of those exceptional, but not 

uncommon men who are born with sensibilities abnormally deflected 

from the ordinary channel. He showed no partiality for women, and 

a notable enthusiasm for the beauty of young men.... He was a man 

of physically frigid temperament, extremely sensitive to beauty 

of the male type, who habitually philosophized his emotions, and 

contemplated the living objects of his admiration as amiable, not 

only for their personal qualities, but also for their esthetical 

attractiveness.[63] 

 

A temperament of this kind seems to have had no significance for the men 

of those days; they were blind to all homosexual emotion which had no 

result in sodomy. Plato found such attraction a subject for sentimental 

metaphysics, but it was not until nearly our own time that it again became 

a subject of interest and study. Yet it undoubtedly had profound influence 

on Michelangelo's art, impelling him to find every kind of human beauty in 

the male form, and only a grave dignity or tenderness, divorced from every 

quality that is sexually desirable, in the female form. This deeply rooted 

abnormality is at once the key to the melancholy of Michelangelo and to 

the mystery of his art. 

 

Michelangelo's contemporary, the painter Bazzi (1477-1549), seems also to 

have been radically inverted, and to this fact he owed his nickname 

Sodoma. As, however, he was married and had children, it may be that he 

was, as we should now say, of bisexual temperament. He was a great artist 

who has been dealt with unjustly, partly, perhaps, because of the 

prejudice of Vasari,--whose admiration for Michelangelo amounted to 

worship, but who is contemptuous toward Sodoma and grudging of 

praise,--partly because his work is little known out of Italy and not 

very easy of access there. Reckless, unbalanced, and eccentric in his 

life, Sodoma revealed in his painting a peculiar feminine softness and 

warmth--which indeed we seem to see also in his portrait of himself at 

Monte Oliveto Maggiore--and a very marked and tender feeling for 

masculine, but scarcely virile, beauty.[64] 

 

Cellini was probably homosexual. He was imprisoned on a charge of 

unnatural vice and is himself suspiciously silent in his autobiography 

concerning this imprisonment.[65] 

 

In the seventeenth century another notable sculptor who has been termed 

the Flemish Cellini, Jerome Duquesnoy (whose still more distinguished 

brother Francois executed the Manneken Pis in Brussels), was an invert; 

having finally been accused of sexual relations with a youth in a chapel 

of the Ghent Cathedral, where he was executing a monument for the bishop, 

he was strangled and burned, notwithstanding that much influence, 

including that of the bishop, was brought to bear in his behalf.[66] 

 

In more recent times Winkelmann, who was the initiator of a new Greek 

Renaissance and of the modern appreciation of ancient art, lies under what 

seems to be a well-grounded suspicion of sexual inversion. His letters to 

male friends are full of the most passionate expressions of love. His 

violent death also appears to have been due to a love-adventure with a 

man. The murderer was a cook, a wholly uncultivated man, a criminal who 

had already been condemned to death, and shortly before murdering 

Winkelmann for the sake of plunder he was found to be on very intimate 

terms with him.[67] It is noteworthy that sexual inversion should so often 

be found associated with the study of antiquity. It must not, however, be 

too hastily concluded that this is due to suggestion and that to abolish 

the study of Greek literature and art would be largely to abolish sexual 

inversion. What has really occurred in those recent cases that may be 

studied, and therefore without doubt in the older cases, is that the 


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