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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

 

 

In 1893, in his _L'Inversion Sexuelle_, Chevalier, a pupil of 

Lacassagne--who had already applied the term "hermaphrodisme 

moral" to this anomaly--explained congenital homosexuality by the 

idea of latent bisexuality. Dr. G. de Letamendi, Dean of the 

Faculty of Medicine of Madrid, in a paper read before the 

International Medical Congress at Rome in 1894, set forth a 

principle of panhermaphroditism--a hermaphroditic 

bipolarity--which involved the existence of latent female germs 

in the male, latent male germs in the female, which latent germs 

may strive for, and sometimes obtain, the mastery. In February, 

1896, the first version of the present chapter, setting forth the 

conception of inversion as a psychic and somatic development on 

the basis of a latent bisexuality, was published in the 

_Centralblatt fuer Nervenheilkunde und Psychiatrie_. Kurella (ib., 

May, 1890) adopted a somewhat similar view, even arguing that the 

invert is a transitional form between the complete man or woman 

and the hermaphrodite. In Germany a patient of Krafft-Ebing had 

worked out the same idea, connecting inversion with fetal 

bisexuality (eighth edition _Psychopathia Sexualis_, p. 227). 

Krafft-Ebing himself at first simply asserted that, whether 

congenital or acquired, there must be _Belastung_; inversion is a 

"degenerate phenomenon," a functional sign of degeneration 

(Krafft-Ebing, "Zur Erklaerung der contraeren Sexualempfindung," 

_Jahrbuch fuer Psychiatrie_, 1894). In the later editions of 

_Psychopathia Sexualis_, however (1896 and onward and notably in 

_Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. iii, 1901), he went 

farther, adopting the explanation on the lines of original 

bisexuality (English translation of tenth edition, pp. 336-7). In 

much the same language as I have used he argued that there has 

been a struggle in the centers, homosexuality resulting when the 

center antagonistic to that represented by the sexual gland 

conquers, and psycho-sexual hermaphroditism resulting when both 

centers are too weak to obtain victory, in either case such 

disturbance not being a psychic degeneration or disease, but 

simply an anomaly comparable to a malformation and quite 

consonant with psychic health. This is the view now widely 

accepted by investigators of sexual inversion. (Much material 

bearing on the history of this conception has been brought 

together by Hirschfeld, in _Die Homosexualitaet_, ch. xix, and 

previously in "Vom Wesen der Liebe," _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle 

Zwischenstufen_, vol. viii, 1906, pp. 111-133.) 

 

A similar or allied view is now constantly met with in writers of 

scientific authority who are only incidentally concerned with the 

study of sexual inversion. Thus Halban ("Die Entstehung des 

Geschlechtscharaktere," _Archiv fuer Gynaekologie_, 1903) regards 

hermaphroditism, which he would extend to the psychic sphere, as 

a state in which a double sexual impulse determines the course of 

fetal and later development. Shattock and Seligmann ("True 

Hermaphroditism in the Domestic Fowl, with Remarks on 

Allopterotism," _Transactions of Pathological Society of London_, 

vol. lvii, part i, 1906), pointing out that mere atrophy of the 

ovary cannot account for the appearance in the hen bird of male 

characters which are not retrogressive but progressive, argues 

that such birds are really bisexual or hermaphrodite, either by 

the single "ovary" being really bisexual, as was the case with a 

fowl they examined, or that the sexual glands are paired, one 

being male and the other female, or else that there is misplaced 

male tissue in a neighboring viscus like the adrenal or kidney, 

the male elements asserting themselves when the female elements 

degenerate. "Hermaphroditism," they conclude, "far from being a 

phenomenon altogether abnormal amongst the higher vertebrates, 

should be viewed rather as a reversion to the primitive ancestral 

phase in which bisexualism was the normal disposition.... True 

hermaphroditism in man being established, the question arises 


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