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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

(1) physical hermaphroditism in its various stages; (2) gynandromorphism, 

or eunuchoidism, in which men possess characters resembling those of males 

who have been early castrated and women possess similarly masculine 

characters; (3) sexo-esthetic inversion, or Eonism (Hirschfeld's 

transvestism or cross-dressing), in which, outside the specifically sexual 

emotions, men possess the tastes of women and women those of men. 

 

Hirschfeld has discussed these intermediate sexual stages in 

various works, especially in _Geschlechtsuebergaenge_ (1905), _Die 

Transvestiten_ (1910), and ch. xi of _Die Homosexualitaet_. 

Hermaphroditism (the reality of which has only of late been 

recognized and is still disputed) and pseudohermaphroditism; in 

their physical variations are fully dealt with in the great work, 

richly illustrated, _Hermaphroditismus beim Menschen_, by F.L. 

von Neugebauer, of Warsaw. Neugebauer published an earlier and 

briefer study of the subject in the _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle 

Zwischenstufen_ vol. iv, 1902, pp. 1-176, with a bibliography in 

vol. viii (1906) of the same _Jahrbuch_, pp. 685-700. Hirschfeld 

emphasizes the fact that neither hermaphroditism nor eunuchoidism 

is commonly associated with homosexuality, and that a large 

proportion of the cases of transvestism, as defined by him, are 

heterosexual. True inversion seems, however, to be not 

infrequently found among pseudohermaphrodites; Neugebauer records 

numerous cases; Magnan has published a case in a girl brought up 

as a youth (_Gazette medical de Paris_, March 31, 1911) and 

Lapointe a case in a man brought up as a girl (_Revue de 

psychiatrie_, 1911, p. 219). Such cases may be accounted for by 

the training and associations involved by the early error in 

recognition of sex, and perhaps still more by a really organic 

predisposition to homosexuality, although the sexual psychic 

characters are not necessarily bound up with the coexistence of 

corresponding sexual glands. Halban (_Archiv fuer Gynaekologie_ 

1903) goes so far as to class the homosexual as "real 

pseudohermaphrodites," exactly comparable to a man with a female 

breast or a woman with a beard, and proposes to term 

homosexuality "pseudohermaphroditus masculinus psychicus." This, 

however, is an unnecessary and scarcely satisfactory confusion. 

To place the group of homosexual phenomena among other intermediate groups 

on the organic bisexual basis is a convenient classification. It can 

scarcely be regarded as a complete explanation. It is probable that we may 

ultimately find a more fundamental source of these various phenomena in 

the stimulating and inhibiting play of the internal secretions.[234] Our 

knowledge of the intimate association between the hormones and sexual 

phenomena is already sufficient to make such an explanation intelligible; 

the complex interaction of the glandular internal secretions and their 

liability to varying disturbance in balance may well suffice to account 

for the complexity of the phenomena. It would harmonize with what we know 

of the occasional delayed manifestations of homosexuality, and would not 

clash with their congenital nature, for we know that a disordered state of 

the thymus, for instance, may be hereditary, and it is held that status 

lymphaticus may be either inborn or acquired.[235] Normal sexual 

characters seem to depend largely upon the due co-ordination of the 

internal secretions, and it is reasonable to suppose that sexual 

deviations depend upon their inco-ordination. If a man is a man, and a 

woman a woman, because (in Blair Bell's phrase) of the totality of their 

internal secretions, the intermediate stages between the man and the woman 

must be due to redistribution of those internal secretions.[236] 

 

 

 

 

We know that various internal secretions possess an influential sexual 

effect. Thus the atrophy of the thymus seems to be connected with sexual 

development at puberty; the thyroid reinforces the genital glands; adrenal 

overdevelopment can produce in a female the secondary characteristics of 

the male, as well as cause precocious development of maleness; etc. "An 


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