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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

 

 

At the Innsbruck meeting of the German Anthropological Society, 

in 1894, Virchow thus expressed himself: "In old days an anomaly 

was called pathos, and in this sense every departure from the 

norm is for me a pathological event. If we have ascertained such 

a pathological event, we are further led to investigate what 

_pathos_ was the special cause of it.... This cause may be, for 

example, an external force, or a chemical substance, or a 

physical agent, producing in the normal condition of the body a 

change, an anomaly pathos. This can become hereditary under some 

circumstances, and then become the foundation for certain small 

hereditary characters which are propagated in a family; in 

themselves they belong to pathology, even although they produce 

no injury. For I must remark that pathological does not mean 

harmful; it does not indicate disease; disease in Greek is nosos, 

and it is nosology that is concerned with disease. The 

pathological under some circumstances can be advantageous" 

(_Correspondenz-blatt Deutsch Gesellschaft fuer Anthropologie_, 

1894). These remarks are of interest when we are attempting to 

find the wider bearings of such an anomaly as sexual inversion. 

 

This same distinction has more recently been emphasized by 

Professor Aschoff (_Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift_, 

February 3, 1910; of. _British Medical Journal_, April 9, 1910, 

p. 892), as against Ribbert and others who would unduly narrow 

the conception of pathos. Aschoff points out that, not merely for 

the sake of precision and uniformity of terminology but of clear 

thinking, it is desirable that we should retain a distinction in 

regard to which Galen and the ancient physicians were very 

definite. They used pathos as the wider term involving affection 

(_affectio_) in general, not necessarily impairment of vital 

tissue; when that was involved there was nosos, disease. We have 

to recognize the distinction even if we reject the terminology. 

 

A word may be said as to the connection between sexual inversion and 

degeneration. In France especially, since the days of Morel, the stigmata 

of degeneration are much spoken of. Sexual inversion is frequently 

regarded as one of them: i.e., as an episodic syndrome of a hereditary 

disease, taking its place beside other psychic stigmata, such as 

kleptomania and pyromania. Krafft-Ebing long so regarded inversion; it is 

the view of Magnan, one of the earliest investigators of 

homosexuality;[239] and it was adopted by Moebius. Strictly speaking, the 

invert is degenerate; he has fallen away from the genus. So is a 

color-blind person. But Morel's conception of degenerescence has 

unfortunately been coarsened and vulgarized.[240] As it now stands, we 

gain little or no information by being told that a person is a 

"degenerate." It is only, as Naecke constantly argued, when we find a 

complexus of well-marked abnormalities that we are fairly justified in 

asserting that we have to deal with a condition of degeneration. Inversion 

is sometimes found in such a condition. I have, indeed, already tried to 

suggest that a condition of diffused minor abnormality may be regarded as 

a basis of congenital inversion. In other words, inversion is bound up 

with a modification of the secondary sexual characters. But these 

anomalies and modifications are not invariable,[241] and are not usually 

of a serious character; inversion is rare in the profoundly degenerate. It 

is undesirable to call these modifications "stigmata of degeneration," a 

term which threatens to disappear from scientific terminology, to become a 

mere term of literary and journalistic abuse. So much may be said 

concerning a conception or a phrase of which far too much has been made in 

popular literature. At the best it remains vague and unfitted for 

scientific use. It is now widely recognized that we gain little by 

describing inversion as a degeneration. Naecke, who attached significance 

to the stigmata of degeneration when numerous, was especially active in 

pointing out that inverts are not degenerate, and frequently returned to 

this point. Loewenfeld, Freud, Hirschfeld, Bloch, Rohleder all reject the 


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