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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

conception of sexual inversion as a degeneracy. 

 

Moll is still unable to abandon altogether the position that 

since inversion involves a disharmony between psychic disposition 

and physical conformation we must regard it as morbid, but he 

recognizes (like Krafft-Ebing) that it is properly viewed as 

being on the level of a deformity, that is, an abnormality, 

comparable to physical hermaphroditism. (A. Moll, "Sexuelle 

Zwischenstufen," _Zeitschrift fuer aerztliche Fortbildung_, No. 

24, 1904.) Naecke repeatedly emphasized the view that inversion is 

a congenital non-morbid abnormality; thus in the last year of his 

life he wrote (_Zeitschrift fuer die Gesamte Neurologie und 

Psychiatrie_, vol. xv, Heft 5, 1913): "We must not conceive of 

homosexuality as a degeneration or a disease, but at most as an 

abnormality, due to a disturbance of development." Loewenfeld, 

always a cautious and sagacious clinical observer, agreeing with 

Naecke and Hirschfeld, regards inversion as certainly an 

abnormality, but not therefore morbid; it may be associated with 

disease and degeneration, but is usually simply a variation from 

the norm, not to be regarded as morbid or degenerate, and not 

diminishing the value of the individual as a member of society 

(Loewenfeld, _Ueber die sexuelle Konstitution_, 1911, p. 166; also 

_Zeitschrift fuer Sexualwissenschaft_, Feb., 1908, and 

_Sexual-Probleme_, April, 1908). Aletrino of Amsterdam pushes the 

view that inversion is a non-morbid abnormality to an undue 

extreme by asserting that "the uranist is a normal variety of the 

species _Homo sapiens_" ("Uranisme et Degenerescence," _Archives 

d'Anthropologie Criminelle_, Aug.-Sept., 1908); inversion may be 

regarded as (in the correct sense of the word here adopted) a 

pathological abnormality, but not as an anthropological human 

variety comparable to the Negro or the Mongolian man. (For 

further opinions in favor of inversion as an anomaly, see 

Hirschfeld, _Die Homosexualitaet_, p. 388 et seq.) 

 

Sexual inversion, therefore, remains a congenital anomaly, to be classed 

with other congenital abnormalities which have psychic concomitants. At 

the very least such congenital abnormality usually exists as a 

predisposition to inversion. It is probable that many persons go through 

the world with a congenital predisposition to inversion which always 

remains latent and unroused; in others the instinct is so strong that it 

forces its own way in spite of all obstacles; in others, again, the 

predisposition is weaker, and a powerful exciting cause plays the 

predominant part. 

 

We are thus led to the consideration of the causes that excite the latent 

predisposition. A great variety of causes has been held to excite to 

sexual inversion. It is only necessary to mention those which I have found 

influential. The first to come before us is our school-system, with its 

segregation of boys and girls apart from each other during the periods of 

puberty and adolescence. Many inverts have not been to school at all, and 

many who have been pass through school-life without forming any passionate 

or sexual relationship; but there remain a large number who date the 

development of homosexuality from the influences and examples of 

school-life. The impressions received at the time are not less potent 

because they are often purely sentimental and without any obvious sensual 

admixture. Whether they are sufficiently potent to generate permanent 

inversion alone may be doubtful, but, if it is true that in early life the 

sexual instincts are less definitely determined than when adolescence is 

complete, it is conceivable, though unproved, that a very strong 

impression, acting even on a normal organism, may cause arrest of sexual 

development on the psychic side. 

 

Another exciting cause of inversion is seduction. By this I mean the 

initiation of the young boy or girl by some older and more experienced 

person in whom inversion is already developed, and who is seeking the 

gratification of the abnormal instinct. This appears to be a not uncommon 

incident in the early history of sexual inverts. That such 

seduction--sometimes an abrupt and inconsiderate act of mere sexual 


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