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pale and conventional compared to the romantic passion sung in Shelley's
_Laon and Cythna_, or the tragic exaltation of the same passion in Ford's
great play, "_'Tis Pity She's a Whore_."
 Thus Numa Praetorius, a sagacious observer with, a very wide and
thorough knowledge of homosexuality, finds himself quite unable to accept
the "Oedipus Complex" explanation of inversion (_Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle
Zwischenstufen_, July, 1914, p. 362).
 It cannot be maintained that the frequency of inversion among the
near relatives of inverts is a chance coincidence, for it must be
remembered that few estimates of the prevalence of inversion yield a
higher proportion than 3 per cent.
 See also a discussion of the Freudian view by Hirschfeld, who
concludes (_Die Homosexualitaet_, p. 344) that we can only accept the
Freudian mechanism as rare, and in all cases subordinate to organic
 It has been denied by some (Meynert, Naecke, etc.) that there is any
sexual _instinct_ at all. I may as well, therefore, explain in what sense
I use the word. (See also "Analysis of the Sexual Impulse" in vol. iii of
these _Studies_.) I mean an inherited aptitude the performance of which
normally demands for its full satisfaction the presence of a person of the
opposite sex. It might be asserted that there is no such thing as an
instinct for food, that it is all imitation, etc. In a sense this is true,
but the automatic basis remains. A chicken from an incubator needs no hen
to teach it to eat. It seems to discover eating and drinking, as it were,
by chance, at first eating awkwardly and eating everything, until it
learns what will best satisfy its organic mechanism. There is no instinct
for food, it may be, but there is an instinct which is only satisfied by
food. It is the same with the "sexual instinct." The tentative and
omnivorous habits of the newly hatched chicken may be compared to the
uncertainty of the sexual instinct at puberty, while the sexual pervert is
like a chicken that should carry on into adult age an appetite for worsted
and paper. It may be added here that the question of the hereditary nature
of the sexual instinct has been exhaustively discussed and decisively
affirmed by Moll in his _Untersuchungen ueber die Libido Sexualis_, 1898.
Moll attaches importance to the inheritance of the normal aptitudes for
sexual reaction in an abnormally weak degree as a factor in the
development of sexual perversions.
 This view was revived in a modified form by Naecke (_Zeitschrift fuer
die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie_, vol. xv, Heft 5, 1913), who
supposed that there may be an anatomical "homosexual center" in the brain;
i.e., a feminine libido-center in the inverted man, and a masculine
libido-center in the inverted woman. He expressed a hope that in the
future the brains of inverted persons would be more carefully
 I do not present this view as more than a picture which helps us to
realize the actual phenomena which we witness in homosexuality, although I
may add that so able a teratologist as Dr. J.W. Ballantyne considers that
"it seems a very possible theory."
 This explanation of homosexuality has already been tentatively put
forth. Thus, Iwan Bloch (_Sexual Life of Our Time_, ch. xix, Appendix)
vaguely suggests a new theory of homosexuality as dependent on chemical
influences. Hirschfeld also believes (_Die Homosexualitaet_, ch. xx) that
the study of the internal secretions is the path to the deepest
foundations of inversion.
 A.E. Garrod, "The Thymus Gland in its Clinical Aspects," _British
Medical Journal_, Oct. 3, 1914
 "The pure female and the pure male are produced by all the internal
secretions," Blair Bell, "The Internal Secretions," _British Medical
Journal_, Nov. 15, 1913.
 After this chapter was first published (in the _Centralblatt fuer
Nervenheilkunde_, February, 1896), Fere also compared congenital inversion
to color-blindness and similar anomalies (Fere, "La Descendance d'un
Inverti," _Revue Generale de Clinique et Therapeutique_, 1896), while
Ribot referred to the analogy with color-hearing (_Psychology of the
Emotions_, part ii, ch. vii).
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