Main  Contacts  
Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

CHAPTER VII. 

 

CONCLUSIONS. 

 

The Prevention of Homosexuality--The Influence of the 

School--Coeducation--The Treatment of Sexual 

Inversion--Castration--Hypnotism--Associational 

Therapy--Psycho-analysis--Mental and Physical Hygiene--Marriage--The 

Children of Inverts--The Attitude of Society--The Horror Aroused by 

Homosexuality--Justinian--The _Code Napoleon_--The State of the Law in 

Europe Today--Germany--England--What Should be our Attitude toward 

Homosexuality? 

 

 

Having now completed the psychological analysis of the sexual invert, so 

far as I have been able to study him, it only remains to speak briefly of 

the attitude of society and the law. First, however, a few words as to the 

medical and hygienic aspects of inversion. The preliminary question of the 

prevention of homosexuality is in too vague a position at present to be 

profitably discussed. So far as the really congenital invert is concerned, 

prevention can have but small influence; but sound social hygiene should 

render difficult the acquisition of homosexual perversity, or what has 

been termed pseudo-homosexuality. It is the school which is naturally the 

chief theater of immature and temporary homosexual manifestations, partly 

because school life largely coincides with the period during which the 

sexual impulse frequently tends to be undifferentiated, and partly because 

in the traditions of large and old schools an artificial homosexuality is 

often deeply rooted. 

 

Homosexuality in English schools has already been briefly 

referred to in chapter iii. As a precise and interesting picture 

of the phenomena in French schools, I may mention a story by 

Albert Nortal, _Les Adolescents Passionnes_ (1913), written 

immediately after the author left college, though not published 

until more than twenty-five years later, and clearly based on 

personal observation and experience. As regards German schools, 

see, e.g., Moll, _Untersuchungen ueber die Libido Sexualis_, p. 

449 et seq., and for sexual manifestations in early life 

generally, the same author's _Sexual Life of the Child_; also 

Hirschfeld, _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. v, 

1903, p. 47 et seq., and, for references, Hirschfeld, _Die 

Homosexualitaet_, p. 46 et seq. 

 

While much may be done by physical hygiene and other means to prevent the 

extension of homosexuality in schools,[243] it is impossible, and even 

undesirable, to repress absolutely the emotional manifestations of sex in 

either boys or girls who have reached the age of puberty.[244] It must 

always be remembered that profoundly rooted organic impulses cannot be 

effectually combated by direct methods. Writing of a period two centuries 

ago, Casanova, in relating his early life as a seminarist trained to the 

priesthood, describes the precautions taken to prevent the youths entering 

each other's beds, and points out the folly of such precautions.[245] As 

that master of the human heart remarks, such prohibitions intensify the 

very evil they are intended to prevent by invoking in its aid the impulse 

to disobedience natural to every child of Adam and Eve, and the 

observation has often been repeated by teachers since. We probably have to 

recognize that a way to render such manifestations wholesome, as well as 

to prepare for the relationships of later life, is the adoption, so far as 

possible, of the method of coeducation of the sexes,[246]--not, of course, 

necessarily involving identity of education for both sexes,--since a 

certain amount of association between the sexes helps to preserve the 

healthiness of the sexual emotional attitude. Association between the 

sexes will not, of course, prevent the development of congenital 

inversion. In this connection it is pointed out by Bethe that it was 

precisely in Sparta and Lesbos, where homosexuality was most ideally 

cultivated, that the sexes, so far as we know, associated more freely than 

in any other Greek State.[247] 

 

The question of the treatment of homosexuality must be approached with 

discrimination, caution, and skepticism. Nowadays we can have but little 

sympathy with those who, at all costs, are prepared to "cure" the invert. 

There is no sound method of cure in radical cases. 

 

At one time the seemingly very radical method of castration was advocated 


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