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 In this connection I may refer to Moll's _Sexual Life of the Child_,
to the writings of Dr. Clement Dukes, physician to Rugby School, who fully
recognizes the risks of school-life, and to the discussion on sexual vice
in schools, started by an address by the Rev. J.M. Wilson, head-master of
Clifton College, in the English _Journal of Education_, 1881-82.
 With regard to the importance of the sexual emotions generally and
their training, see the well-known book by Edward Carpenter, _Love's
Coming of Age_; Professor Gurlitt ("Knabenfreundschaften,"
_Sexual-Probleme_, Oct., 1909) also upholds the intimate friendships of
youth, which in his own experience have not had even a suspicion of
 Casanova, _Memoires_, vol. i (edition Garnier), p. 160. See also
remarks by an experienced master in one of the largest English public
schools, which I have brought forward in vol. i of these _Studies_,
"Auto-erotism," 3d ed., 1910.
 See, e.g., Professor J.R. Angell, "Some Reflections upon the
Reaction from Coeducation," _Popular Science Monthly_, Nov., 1902; also
Moll's _Sexual Life of the Child_, ch. ix, and for a general discussion of
coeducation, S. Poirson, _La Coeducation_, 1911.
 Bethe, "Die Dorische Knabenliebe," _Rheinisches Museum fuer
Philologie_; vol. lxii, Heft 3, p. 440; cf. Edward Carpenter,
_Intermediate Types among Primitive Folk_, ch. vi.
 Schrenck-Notzing, _Die Suggestionstherapie bei krankhaften
Erscheinungen des Geschlechtsinnes_, 1892. (Eng. trans. _Therapeutic
 Raffalovich, _Uranisme et Unisexualite_, 1896, p. 16. He remarks
that the congenital invert who has never had relations with women, and
whose abnormality, to use Krafft-Ebing's distinction, is a perversion and
not a perversity, is much less dangerous and apt to seduce others than the
more versatile and corrupt person who has known all methods of
 See, e.g., Moll, _Die Kontraere Sexualempfindung_, ch. xi; Forel,
_Die Sexuelle Frage_, ch. xiv; Naecke, "Die Behandlung der
Homosexualitaet," _Sexual-Probleme_, Aug., 1910; Hirschfeld, _Die
Homosexualitaet_, ch. xxii.
 Moll, _Zeitschrift fuer Psychotherapie_, 1911, Heft 1; id., _Handbuch
der Sexualwissenschaften_, 1912, p. 662 et seq.
 This is also the opinion of Numa Praetorius, _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle
Zwischenstufen_, Jan., 1913, p. 222.
 See, especially, Sadger, _Zeitschrift fuer Sexualwissenschaft_, Heft
12, 1908; also _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. ix, 1908;
Sadger's methods are criticised by Hirschfeld, _Die Homosexualitaet_, ch.
xxii, and defended by Sadger, _Internationale Zeitschrift fuer Aerztliche
Psychoanalyse_, July, 1914, p. 392. For a discussion of the psychoanalytic
treatment of homosexuality by a leading American Freudian, see Brill,
_Journal American Medical Association_, Aug. 2, 1913.
 _Internationale Zeitschrift fuer Aerztliche Psychoanalyse_, March,
 This is now generally recognized. See, e.g., Roubinovitch and Borel,
"Un Cas d'Uranisme," _L'Encephale_, Aug., 1913. These authors conclude
that it is today impossible to look upon inversion as the equivalent or
the symptom of a psychopathic state, though we have to recognize that it
frequently coexists with morbid emotional states. Naecke, also, in his
extensive experience, found that homosexuality is rare in asylums and
slight in character; he dealt with this question on various occasions;
see, e.g., _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. viii, 1906.
 Krafft-Ebing considered that the temporary or lasting association of
homosexuality with neurasthenia having its root in congenital conditions
is "almost invariable," and some authorities (like Meynert) have regarded
inversion as an accidental growth on the foundation of neurasthenia.
 Fere expressed himself concerning the general treatment of
homosexuality in the same sense, and even more emphatically (Fere,
_L'Instinct Sexuel_, 1899, pp. 272, 286). He considers that all forms of
congenital inversion resist treatment, and that, since a change in the
invert's instincts must be regarded rather as a perversion of the invert
than a cure of the inversion, one may be permitted to doubt not only the
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