Main  Contacts  
Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

 

 

In France in the thirteenth century the Church was so impressed by the 

prevalence of homosexuality that it reasserted the death penalty for 

sodomy at the Councils of Paris (1212) and Rouen (1214), while we are told 

that even by rejecting a woman's advances (as illustrated in Marie de 

France's _Lai de Lanval_) a man fell under suspicion as a sodomist, which 

was also held to involve heresy.[68] At the end of this century (about 

1294) Alain de Lille was impelled to write a book, _De Planctu Naturae_, in 

order to call attention to the prevalence of homosexual feeling; he also 

associated the neglect of women with sodomy. "Man is made woman," he 

writes; "he blackens the honor of his sex, the craft of magic Venus makes 

him of double gender"; nobly beautiful youths have "turned their hammers 

of love to the office of anvils," and "many kisses lie untouched on maiden 

lips." The result is that "the natural anvils," that is to say the 

neglected maidens, "bewail the absence of their hammers and are seen sadly 

to demand them." Alain de Lille makes himself the voice of this 

demand.[69] 

 

A few years later, at the beginning of the fourteenth century, sodomy was 

still regarded as very prevalent. At that time it was especially 

associated with the Templars who, it has been supposed, brought it from 

the East. Such a supposition, however, is not required to account for the 

existence of homosexuality in France. Nor is it necessary, at a somewhat 

later period, to invoke, as is frequently done, the Italian origin of 

Catherine de Medici, in order to explain the prevalence of homosexual 

practices at her court. 

 

Notwithstanding its prevalence, sodomy was still severely punished from 

time to time. Thus in 1586, Dadon, who had formerly been Rector of the 

University of Paris, was hanged and then burned for injuring a child 

through sodomy.[70] In the seventeenth century, homosexuality continued, 

however, to flourish, and it is said that nearly all the numerous 

omissions made in the published editions of Tallement des Reaux's 

_Historiettes_ refer to sodomy.[71] 

 

How prominent homosexuality was, in the early eighteenth century in 

France, we learn from the frequent references to it in the letters of 

Madame, the mother of the Regent, whose husband was himself effeminate and 

probably inverted.[72] For the later years of the century the evidence 

abounds on every hand. At this time the Bastille was performing a useful 

function, until recently overlooked by historians, as an _asile de surete_ 

for abnormal persons whom it was considered unsafe to leave at large. 

Inverts whose conduct became too offensive to be tolerated were frequently 

placed in the Bastille which, indeed "abounded in homosexual subjects," to 

a greater extent than any other class of sexual perverts. Some of the 

affairs which led to the Bastille have a modern air. One such case on a 

large scale occurred in 1702, and reveals an organized system of 

homosexual prostitution; one of the persons involved in this affair was a 

handsome, well-made youth named Lebel, formerly a lackey, but passing 

himself off as a man of quality. Seduced at the age of 10 by a famous 

sodomist named Duplessis, he had since been at the disposition of a number 

of homosexual persons, including officers, priests, and marquises. Some of 

the persons involved in these affairs were burned alive; some cut their 

own throats; others again were set at liberty or transferred to the 

Bicetre.[73] During the latter part of the eighteenth century, also, we 

find another modern homosexual practice recognized in France; the 

rendezvous or center where homosexual persons could quietly meet each 

other.[74] 

 

Inversion has always been easy to trace in Germany. Ammianus Marcellinus 

bears witness to its prevalence among some German tribes in later Roman 

days.[75] In mediaeval times, as Schultz points out, references to sodomy 

in Germany were far from uncommon. Various princes of the German Imperial 

house, and of other princely families in the Middle Ages, were noted for 

their intimate friendships. At a later date, attention has frequently been 

called to the extreme emotional warmth which has often marked German 

friendship, even when there has been no suspicion of any true homosexual 


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