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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

relationship.[76] The eighteenth century, in the full enjoyment of that 

abandonment to sentiment initiated by Rousseau, proved peculiarly 

favorable to the expansion of the tendency to sentimental friendship. On 

this basis a really inverted tendency, when it existed, could easily come 

to the surface and find expression. We find this well illustrated in the 

poet Heinrich von Kleist who seems to have been of bisexual temperament, 

and his feelings for the girl he wished to marry were, indeed, much cooler 

than those for his friend. To this friend, Ernst von Pfuel (afterward 

Prussian war minister), Kleist wrote in 1805 at the age of 28: "You bring 

the days of the Greeks back to me; I could sleep with you, dear youth, my 

whole soul so embraces you. When you used to bathe in the Lake of Thun I 

would gaze with the real feelings of a girl at your beautiful body. It 

would serve an artist to study from." There follows an enthusiastic 

account of his friend's beauty and of the Greek "idea of the love of 

youths," and Kleist concludes: "Go with me to Anspach, and let us enjoy 

the sweets of friendship.... I shall never marry; you must be wife and 

children to me."[77] 

 

In all social classes and in all fields of activity, Germany during the 

nineteenth century produced a long series of famous or notorious 

homosexual persons. At the one end we find people of the highest 

intellectual distinction, such as Alexander von Humboldt, whom Naecke, a 

cautious investigator, stated that he had good ground for regarding as an 

invert.[78] At the other end we find prosperous commercial and 

manufacturing people who leave Germany to find solace in the free and 

congenial homosexual atmosphere of Capri; of these F.A. Krupp, the head of 

the famous Essen factory, may be regarded as the type.[79] 

 

In England (and the same is true today of the United States), although 

homosexuality has been less openly manifest and less thoroughly explored, 

it is doubtful whether it has been less prevalent than in Germany. At an 

early period, indeed, the evidence may even seem to show that it was more 

prevalent. In the Penitentials of the ninth and tenth centuries "natural 

fornication and sodomy" were frequently put together and the same penance 

assigned to both; it was recognized that priests and bishops, as well as 

laymen, might fall into this sin, though to the bishop nearly three times 

as much penance was assigned as to the layman. Among the Normans, 

everywhere, homosexuality was markedly prevalent; the spread of sodomy in 

France about the eleventh century is attributed to the Normans, and their 

coming seems to have rendered it at times almost fashionable, at all 

events at court. In England William Rufus was undoubtedly inverted, as 

later on were Edward II, James I, and, perhaps, though not in so 

conspicuous a degree, William III.[80] 

 

Ordericus Vitalis, who was himself half Norman and half English, says that 

the Normans had become very effeminate in his time, and that after the 

death of William the Conqueror sodomy was common both in England and 

Normandy. Guillaume de Nangis, in his chronicle for about 1120, speaking 

of the two sons of Henry and the company of young nobles who went down 

with them, in the _White Ship_, states that nearly all were considered to 

be sodomists, and Henry of Huntingdon, in his _History_, looked upon the 

loss of the _White Ship_ as a judgment of heaven upon sodomy. Anselm, in 

writing to Archdeacon William to inform him concerning the recent Council 

at London (1102), gives advice as to how to deal with people who have 

committed the sin of sodomy, and instructs him not to be too harsh with 

those who have not realized its gravity, for hitherto "this sin has been 

so public that hardly anyone has blushed for it, and many, therefore, have 

plunged into it without realizing its gravity."[81] So temperate a remark 

by a man of such unquestionably high character is more significant of the 

prevalence of homosexuality than much denunciation. 

 

In religious circles far from courts and cities, as we might expect, 

homosexuality was regarded with great horror, though even here we may 

discover evidence of its wide prevalence. Thus in the remarkable 

_Revelation_ of the Monk of Evesham, written in English in 1196, we find 


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