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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

that in the very worst part of Purgatory are confined an innumerable 

company of sodomists (including a wealthy, witty, and learned divine, a 

doctor of laws, personally known to the Monk), and whether these people 

would ever be delivered from Purgatory was a matter of doubt; of the 

salvation of no other sinners does the Monk of Evesham seem so dubious. 

 

Sodomy had always been an ecclesiastical offense. The Statute of 1533 (25 

Henry VIII, c. 6) made it a felony; and Pollock and Maitland consider that 

this "affords an almost sufficient proof that the temporal courts had not 

punished it, and that no one had been put to death for it, for a very long 

time past."[82] The temporal law has never, however, proved very 

successful in repressing homosexuality. At this period the Renaissance 

movement was reaching England, and here as elsewhere it brought with it, 

if not an increase, at all events a rehabilitation and often an 

idealization of homosexuality.[83] 

 

An eminent humanist and notable pioneer in dramatic literature, Nicholas 

Udall, to whom is attributed _Ralph Roister Doister_, the first English 

comedy, stands out as unquestionably addicted to homosexual tastes, 

although he has left no literary evidence of this tendency. He was an 

early adherent of the Protestant movement, and when head-master of Eton he 

was noted for his love of inflicting corporal punishment on the boys. 

Tusser says he once received from Udall 53 stripes for "fault but small or 

none at all." Here there was evidently a sexual sadistic impulse, for in 

1541 (the year of _Ralph Roister Doister_) Udall was charged with 

unnatural crime and confessed his guilt before the Privy Council. He was 

dismissed from the head-mastership and imprisoned, but only for a short 

time, "and his reputation," his modern biographer states, "was not 

permanently injured." He retained the vicarage of Braintree, and was much 

favored by Edward VI, who nominated him to a prebend of Windsor. Queen 

Mary was also favorable and he became head-master of Westminster 

School.[84] 

 

An Elizabethan lyrical poet of high quality, whose work has had the honor 

of being confused with Shakespeare's, Richard Barnfield, appears to have 

possessed the temperament, at least, of the invert. His poems to male 

friends are of so impassioned a character that they aroused the protests 

of a very tolerant age. Very little is known of Barnfield's life. Born in 

1574 he published his first poem, _The Affectionate Shepherd_, at the age 

of 20, while still at the University. It was issued anonymously, revealed 

much fresh poetic feeling and literary skill, and is addressed to a youth 

of whom the poet declares:-- 

 

"If it be sin to love a lovely lad, 

Oh then sin I." 

 

In his subsequent volume, _Cynthia_ (1595), Barnfield disclaims any 

intention in the earlier poem beyond that of imitating Virgil's second 

eclogue. But the sonnets in this second volume are even more definitely 

homosexual than the earlier poem, though he goes on to tell how at last he 

found a lass whose beauty surpassed that 

 

"of the swain 

Whom I never could obtain." 

 

After the age of 31 Barnfield wrote no more, but, being in easy 

circumstances, retired to his beautiful manor house and country estate in 

Shropshire, lived there for twenty years and died leaving a wife and 

son.[85] It seems probable that he was of bisexual temperament, and that, 

as not infrequently happens in such cases, the homosexual element 

developed early under the influence of a classical education and 

university associations, while the normal heterosexual element developed 

later and, as may happen in bisexual persons, was associated with the more 

commonplace and prosaic side of life. Barnfield was only a genuine poet on 

the homosexual side of his nature. 

 

Greater men of that age than Barnfield may be suspected of homosexual 

tendencies. Marlowe, whose most powerful drama, _Edward II_, is devoted to 

a picture of the relations between that king and his minions, is himself 

suspected of homosexuality. An ignorant informer brought certain charges 

of freethought and criminality against him, and further accused him of 

asserting that they are fools who love not boys. These charges have 

doubtless been colored by the vulgar channel through which they passed, 


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