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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

imprisonment at Mons. In after-years he gave expression to the exalted 

passion of this relationship--_mon grand peche radieux_--in _Laeti et 

Errabundi_, published in the volume entitled _Parallelement_; and in later 

poems he has told of less passionate and less sensual relationships which 

yet were more than friendship, for instance, in the poem, "_Mon ami, ma 

plus belle amitie, ma Meilleure_" in _Bonheur_.[100] 

 

In this brief glance at some of the ethnographical, historical, religious, 

and literary aspects of homosexual passion there is one other phenomenon 

which may be mentioned. This is the alleged fact that, while the phenomena 

exist to some extent everywhere, we seem to find a special proclivity to 

homosexuality (whether or not involving a greater frequency of congenital 

inversion is not usually clear) among certain races and in certain 

regions.[101] In Europe this would be best illustrated by the case of 

southern Italy, which in this respect is held to be distinct from northern 

Italy, although Italians generally are franker than men of northern race 

in admitting their sexual practices.[102] How far the supposed greater 

homosexuality of southern Italy may be due to Greek influence and Greek 

blood it is not very easy to say. 

 

It must be remembered that, in dealing with a northern country like 

England, homosexual phenomena do not present themselves in the same way as 

they do in southern Italy today, or in ancient Greece. In Greece the 

homosexual impulse was recognized and idealized; a man could be an open 

homosexual lover, and yet, like Epaminondas, be a great and honored 

citizen of his country. There was no reason whatever why a man, who in 

mental and physical constitution was perfectly normal, should not adopt a 

custom that was regarded as respectable, and sometimes as even specially 

honorable. But it is quite otherwise today in a country like England or 

the United States.[103] In these countries all our traditions and all our 

moral ideals, as well as the law, are energetically opposed to every 

manifestation of homosexual passion. It requires a very strong impetus to 

go against this compact social force which, on every side, constrains the 

individual into the paths of heterosexual love. That impetus, in a 

well-bred individual who leads the normal life of his fellow-men and who 

feels the ordinary degree of respect for the social feeling surrounding 

him, can only be supplied by a fundamental--usually, it is probable, 

inborn--perversion of the sexual instinct, rendering the individual 

organically abnormal. It is with this fundamental abnormality, usually 

called sexual inversion, that we shall here be concerned. There is no 

evidence to show that homosexuality in Greece was a congenital perversion, 

although it appears that Coelius Aurelianus affirms that in the opinion of 

Parmenides it was hereditary. Aristotle also, in his fragment on physical 

love, though treating the whole matter with indulgence, seems to have 

distinguished abnormal congenital homosexuality from acquired homosexual 

vice. Doubtless in a certain proportion of cases the impulse was organic, 

and it may well be that there was an organic and racial predisposition to 

homosexuality among the Greeks, or, at all events, the Dorians. But the 

state of social feeling, however it originated, induced a large proportion 

of the ordinary population to adopt homosexuality as a fashion, or, it may 

be said, the environment was peculiarly favorable to the development of 

latent homosexual tendencies. So that any given number of homosexual 

persons among the Greeks would have presented a far smaller proportion of 

constitutionally abnormal individuals than a like number in England. 

In a similar manner--though I do not regard the analogy as 

complete--infanticide or the exposition of children was practised in some 

of the early Greek States by parents who were completely healthy and 

normal; in England a married woman who destroys her child is in nearly 

every case demonstrably diseased or abnormal. For this reason I am unable 

to see that homosexuality in ancient Greece--while of great interest as a 

social and psychological problem--throws light on sexual inversion as we 

know it in England or the United States. 


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