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Table of contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION-1.1
INTRODUCTION-1.2
INTRODUCTION-1.3
INTRODUCTION-1.4
INTRODUCTION-1.5
INTRODUCTION-1.6
INTRODUCTION-1.7
FOOTNOTES-1
FOOTNOTES-2
THE STUDY OF SEXUAL INVERSION
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN MEN-3
HISTORY-1-2-3-4
HISTORY-5
HISTORY-6
HISTORY-7-8
HISTORY-9
HISTORY-10-11-12
HISTORY-13-14
HISTORY-15
HISTORY-16-17-18-19
HISTORY-20
HISTORY-21 (begin)
HISTORY-21 (end)
HISTORY-22-23-24
HISTORY-25
HISTORY-26
HISTORY-27
HISTORY-28-29-30-31-32
HISTORY-33
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-1
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-2
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-3
SEXUAL INVERSION IN WOMEN-4
HISTORY-34-35-36-37
HISTORY-38
HISTORY-39.1
HISTORY-39.2
HISTORY-39.3
HISTORY-39.4
FOOTNOTES
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
THE NATURE OF SEXUAL INVERSION-4
FOOTNOTES
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-1
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-2
THE THEORY OF SEXUAL INVERSION-3
CONCLUSIONS-1
CONCLUSIONS-2
CONCLUSIONS-3
CONCLUSIONS-4
FOOTNOTES
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B-1
APPENDIX B-2-3-4
INDEX OF AUTHORS

lands, and believes that it may be a question of race.[109] The question 

is still undecided. It is possible that the undoubted fact that 

homosexuality is less conspicuous in France and the other Latin countries 

than in Teutonic lands, may be due not to the occurrence of a smaller 

proportion of congenital inverts in the former lands, but mainly to 

general difference in temperament and in the social reaction.[110] The 

French idealize and emphasize the place of women to a much greater degree 

than the Germans, while at the same time inverts in France have much less 

occasion than in Germany to proclaim their legal grievances. Apart from 

such considerations as these it seems very doubtful whether inborn 

inversion is in any considerable degree rarer in France than in Germany. 

 

As to the frequency of homosexuality in England[111] and the United 

States there is much evidence. In England its manifestations are well 

marked for those whose eyes have once been opened. The manifestations are 

of the same character as those in Germany, modified by social and national 

differences, and especially by the greater reserve, Puritanism, and 

prudery of England.[112] In the United States these same influences exert 

a still greater effect in restraining the outward manifestations of 

homosexuality. Hirschfeld, though so acute and experienced in the 

investigation of homosexuality, states that when visiting Philadelphia and 

Boston he could scarcely detect any evidence of homosexuality, though he 

was afterward assured by those acquainted with local conditions that its 

extension in both cities is "colossal." There have been numerous criminal 

cases and scandals in the United States in which homosexuality has come to 

the surface, and the very frequently occurring cases of transvestism or 

cross-dressing in the States seem to be in a large proportion associated 

with homosexuality. 

 

In the opinion of some, English homosexuality has become much more 

conspicuous during recent years, and this is sometimes attributed to the 

Oscar Wilde case. No doubt, the celebrity of Oscar Wilde and the universal 

publicity given to the facts of the case by the newspapers may have 

brought conviction of their perversion to many inverts who were before 

only vaguely conscious of their abnormality, and, paradoxical though it 

may seem, have imparted greater courage to others; but it can scarcely 

have sufficed to increase the number of inverts. Rather, one may say, the 

development of urban life renders easier the exhibition and satisfaction 

of this as of all other forms of perversion. Regarding the proportion of 

inverts among the general population, it is very difficult to speak 

positively. The invert himself is a misleading guide because he has formed 

round himself a special coterie of homosexual persons, and, moreover, he 

is sometimes apt to overestimate the number of inverts through the 

misinterpretation of small indications that are not always conclusive. 

The estimate of the ordinary normal person, feeling the ordinary disgust 

toward abnormal phenomena, is also misleading, because his homosexual 

acquaintances are careful not to inform him concerning their proclivities. 

A writer who has studied the phenomena of homosexuality is apt to be 

misguided in the same way as the invert himself, and to overestimate the 

prevalence of the perversion. Striving to put aside this source of 

fallacy, and only considering those individuals with whom I have been 

brought in contact by the ordinary circumstances of life, and with whose 

modes of feeling I am acquainted, I am still led to the conclusion that 

the proportion is considerable. Among the professional and most cultured 

element of the middle class in England, there must be a distinct 

percentage of inverts which may sometimes be as much as 5 per cent., 

though such estimates must always be hazardous. Among women of the same 

class the percentage seems to be at least double, though here the 

phenomena are less definite and deep-seated. This seems to be a moderate 

estimate for this class, which includes, however, it must be remembered, a 

considerable proportion of individuals who are somewhat abnormal in other 

respects. As we descend the scale the phenomena are doubtless less common, 


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