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 Taking all its forms _en bloc_, as they are known to the police,
homosexuality is seen to possess formidable proportions. Thus in France,
from official papers which passed through M. Carlier's bureau during ten
years (1860-70), he compiled a list of 6342 pederasts who came within the
cognizance of the police; 2049 Parisians, 3709 provincials, and 584
foreigners. Of these, 3432, or more than the half, could not be convicted
of illegal acts.
 The chief general collection of data (not here drawn upon) concerning
homosexuality among animals is by the zooelogist Prof. Karsch, "Paederastie
und Tribadie bei den Tieren," _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol.
ii. Brehm's _Tierleben_ also contains many examples. See also a short
chapter (ch. xxix) in Hirschfeld's _Homosexualitaet_.
 H. Sainte-Claire Deville, "De l'Internat et son influence sur
l'education de la jeunesse," a paper read to the Academie des Sciences
Morales et Politiques, July 27, 1871, and quoted by Chevalier,
_L'Inversion Sexuelle_, pp. 204-5.
 M. Bombarda, _Comptes rendus Congres Internationale de l'Anthropologie
Criminelle_, Amsterdam, p. 212.
 Lacassagne, "De la Criminalite chez les Animaux," _Revue
 Steinach, "Utersuchungen zu vergleichende Physiologie," _Archiv fuer
die Gesammte Physiologie_, Bd. lvi, 1894, p. 320.
 Fere, _Comptes-rendus Societe de Biologie_, July 30, 1898. We may
perhaps connect this with an observation of E. Selous (_Zooelogist_, May
and Sept., 1901) on a bird, the Great Crested Grebe; after pairing, the
male would crouch to the female, who played his part to him; the same
thing is found among pigeons. Selous suggests that this is a relic of
primitive hermaphroditism. But it may be remembered that in the male
generally sexual intercourse tends to be more exhausting than in the
female; this fact would favor a reversion of their respective parts.
 E. Selous, "Sexual Selection in Birds," _Zooelogist_, Feb., 1907, p.
65; ib., May, p. 169. Sexual aberrations generally are not uncommon among
birds; see, e.g., A. Heim, "Sexuelle Verirrungen bei Voegeln in den
Tropen," _Sexual-Probleme_, April, 1913.
 See Moll, _Untersuchungen ueber die Libido Sexualis_, 1898, Bd. i, pp.
369, 374-5. For a summary of facts concerning homosexuality in animals see
F. Karsch, "Paederastie und Tribadie bei den Tieren auf Grund der
Literatur," _Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. ii, 1899, pp.
 Muccioli, "Degenerazione e Criminalita nei Colombi," _Archivio di
Psichiatria_, 1893, p. 40.
 _L'Intermediare des Biologistes_, November 20, 1897.
 R.I. Pocock, _Field_, 25 Oct., 1913.
 R.S. Rutherford, "Crowing Hens," _Poultry_, January 26, 1896.
 This has now been very thoroughly done by Prof. F. Karsch-Haack in a
large book, _Das Gleichgeschlechtliche Leben der Naturvoelker_, 1911. An
earlier and shorter study by the same author was published in the
_Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. iii, 1901.
 See a brief and rather inconclusive treatment of the question by
Bruns Meissner, "Assyriologische Studien," iv, _Mitteilungen der
Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft_, 1907.
 _Monatshefte fuer praktische Dermatologie_, Bd. xxix, 1899, p. 409.
 Hirschfeld, _Die Homosexualitaet_, p. 739.
 Beardmore also notes that sodomy is "regularly indulged in" in New
Guinea on this account. (_Journal of the Anthropological Institute_, May,
1890, p. 464.)
 I have been told by medical men in India that it is specially common
among the Sikhs, the finest soldier-race in India.
 Foley, _Bulletin Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris_, October 9, 1879.
 See, e.g., O. Kiefer, "Plato's Stellung zu Homosexualitaet," _Jahrbuch
fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. vii.
 Bethe, op. cit., p. 440. In old Japan (before the revolution of 1868)
also, however, according to F.S. Krauss (_Das Geschlechtsleben der
Japaner_, ch. xiii, 1911), the homosexual relations between knights and
their pages resembled those of ancient Greece.
 _Archiv fuer Kriminal-Anthropologie_, 1906, p. 106.
 _Zeitschrift fuer Sexualwissenschaft_, 1914, Heft 2, p. 73.
 Among the Sarts of Turkestan a class of well-trained and educated
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